proTeXt aims to be an easy-to-install TeX distribution for Windows, based on MiKTeX. After downloading, it guides the installation via a short pdf document (available in English, French, German, and Italian), which provides clickable links to install the various components, along with explanations.
First, proTeXt adds a few independent tools to MiKTeX: TeXnicCenter, Ghostscript, and GSview. If you want to see the exact contents, the .exe file is also a zip file; you can inspect it via unzip (on any platform).
To use ConTeXt within proTeXt or MiKTeX, you also need to install a Perl for Windows such as ActivePerl, and Ruby.
proTeXt's creator and principal maintainer is Thomas Feuerstack, while MiKTeX was created and continues to be maintained by Christian Schenk. Many thanks to both.