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Leopold Kozeluch (26 Jun 1747 07 May 1818): E flat Clarinet Concerto (1790)

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Name:Leopold Kozeluch (26 Jun 1747 07 May 1818): E flat Clarinet Concerto (1790)

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Kozeluch [Kotzeluch, Koželuh], Leopold [Jan Antonín, Ioannes Antonius]
(b Velvary, 26 June 1747; d Vienna, 7 May 1818).
Bohemian composer, pianist, music teacher and publisher. He was baptized Jan Antonín, but began (not later than 1773) to use the name Leopold to differentiate himself from his older cousin of that name. He received his basic music education in Velvary and then studied music in Prague with his cousin, who probably gave him a thorough grounding in counterpoint and vocal writing, and with F.X. Dušek, whose piano and composition school prepared him mainly for writing symphonies and piano sonatas. After the success of his first ballets and pantomimes (performed in Prague, 1771–8), Kozeluch abandoned his law studies for a career as a musician. In 1778 he went to Vienna, where he quickly made a reputation as an excellent pianist, teacher and composer. By 1781 he was so well established there that he could refuse an offer to succeed Mozart as court organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg. By 1784 Kozeluch was publishing his own works; the following year he founded a music publishing house, later managed as the Musikalisches magazin by his brother Antonín Tomáš Kozeluch (1752–1805). His compositions were also published almost simultaneously by a number of other houses in various countries. Kozeluch's business contacts with English publishers, particularly John Bland, Robert Birchall, and Lewis, Houston & Hyde, are well documented by correspondence. In September 1791 he achieved success in high circles with a cantata commissioned by the Bohemian Estates for the Prague coronation of Leopold II as King of Bohemia. After the accession of Emperor Franz II he was appointed (12 June 1792) Kammer Kapellmeister and Hofmusik Compositor. From about 1804 Kozeluch's original work as a composer took second place to his arrangements of Scottish, Irish and Welsh folksongs for the Edinburgh publisher George Thomson, to teaching, and to the activities connected with his court appointment, which he held until his death. His daughter Catharina Cibbini (1785–1858) was a well-known pianist and composer of piano music during the early 19th century in Vienna.

Kozeluch was one of the foremost representatives of Czech music in 18th-century Vienna. His influence as a pianist and piano teacher was such that early contemporary accounts praised him for helping in the development of an idiomatic piano style and for discouraging the use of the harpsichord in favour of the piano. As a composer he devoted himself almost exclusively to secular music (his sacred compositions are mostly arrangements of secular works). His chief interest lay in piano music – sonatas, piano trios and concertos – but he wrote almost as much symphonic and vocal music; he also composed for the stage, though most of his ballets and all but one of his operas are lost, making his achievement difficult to assess.

Kozeluch's output falls into three main stylistic (though not chronological) divisions: except for the oratorio Moisè in Egitto the galant style of the Viennese Rococo characterizes the greater part of his vocal output of the 1780s, particularly the songs and ariettas; his piano concertos and symphonies use the normal expressive language of the Viennese Classical style at that period, and a number of piano and chamber works of the 1780s and 1790s even presage the Romantic lyricism of Schubert. Elements of Beethoven's tragic-pathetic style and (more rarely) his lyricism are most evident in works of about 1785–97 (like the piano sonatas pXII:17, 20, 27, 34, 37, and the piano trios pIX:11, 15, 33), and can also be discerned in works from the first decade of the 19th century (e.g. pXII:38–40). Romantic expression is foreshadowed in the chamber works and piano music of 1785–91 (e.g. pXII:26, 28 and pVIII:3) and above all in the Trois caprices for piano (pXIII:3–5, about 1797) and the piano trios using Scottish and Irish melodies (pIX:40–45, 52–4, 1798–1803). The caprices, with their novel sonorities, colourful harmony and unusual form, represent an early stage of the single-movement lyrical piano piece; the other works hint at Schubert and Weber in some stylistic traits and in the character of their melodic inspiration.

WORKS
printed works published in Vienna unless otherwise stated; catalogue numbers are from Poštolka (1964), which includes doubtful and lost works; editions are listed in MAB, lxxii (1969)
vocal
9 cants., XIX:1–9: Denis Klage auf den Tod Marien Theresien (1781); Quanto è mai tormentosa (c1782); Joseph, der Menschheit Segen, perf. 1783 (1784); Cantate (K.G. Pfeffel, ‘auf M.T. von Paradis’, perf. 1783 (1785); Chloe, recit and aria (1783); Cantate ded. Leopold II (Meissner), perf. 1791, CZ-Pk; La Galatea, 1802, perf. April 1806, Pk; In un fiero contrasto, A-Wgm; Cantata pastorale, I-Fc
7 sacred, XXV:1–7: Mass, CZ-Pnm; Tantum ergo, A-Wn; off or grad, CZ-Pnm; 2 arias, Pnm; 1 aria, NA; hymn (Prague, 1833)
c60 songs (1v, hpd/pf, unless otherwise stated), XXI:1–15, XX:1–3: 15 Lieder (1785); 12 Lieder (1785); The Happy Pair, in 6 Ballads (London, ?c1788); 12 Italian Arietts, 1v, hp/pf (London, 1790); De l’arbre ces fruits (1795); march song (1796); march song (1797); 3 airs françois (1797); Hört! Maurer (Berlin, 1799); In questa tomba oscura, arietta (1808); 6 [12] canzonets (1815); Mein Mädchen (1811); Des Kriegers Abschied (Berlin, c1818–19); Let the Declining Damask Rose (London, n.d.); Caro bene, recit and rondo, S, orch (London, n.d.); 2 arias, A-Wgm; 1 aria, D-Bsb
Moisè in Egitto, XVI:1 (orat), 1787, A-Wgm; La Giuditta, XVI:2 (orat, G. Bertati), ?c1790–92, I-Fc; 6 notturni, XVIII:1–6, S, A, T, B, pf, vc (1796); Non v’è nembo ne procella nò, XVII:1, chorus, orch, A-Wgm; 27 solfeggi, XXI:C 2, CZ-Pnm
Arrs., XXII:1–2: A Select Collection of [110] Original Scottish Airs, 1v, pf, vn, vc (London, 1798); A Select Collection of [59] Original Welsh Airs, 1v, pf, vn, vc, collab. J. Haydn (London, 1809)

stage
6 ops, XXIII:1–6: Mazet [Le Muzet] (französische komische Oper, 2, L. Anseaume, after J. de La Fontaine), Vienna, Kärntnertor, 1780 ? or 1786, lost; Didone abbandonata (os, 3, P. Metastasio), Vienna, Hof, 1795, lost; Gustav Wasa (grosser heroische Oper, 3), after ?1792, CZ-Pk; 3 others, lost
6 ballets and pantomimes, XXIV:1–6: La ritrovata figlia di Ottone II (ballo eroico, 5, A. Muzzarelli), Vienna, 24 Feb 1794 (1794); Arlechino (? F. Clerico), arr. pf, A-Wgm; ballet, str, D-Bsb*; ballet, hpd, CZ-Pnm; pantomime, hpd, Pnm; Télémaque dans l'île de Calypso (2, J. Dauberval), A-Wgm

orchestral
11 syms., I:1–11: D (Paris, c1786); C (Paris, c1786); D, F, g (1787), ed. in MAB, lxxii (1969); C, A, G (1787); C, D-DO; A, ‘à la française’, c1779–84, CZ-Pnm; B, ‘l'irresolu’, Pnm
22 hpd/pf concs., IV:1–20: F, B (1784); G (1785); A, E (1785); C (Paris, 1786); D (1787); F (Mainz, c1785); Concerto en rondo, C (Offenbach, 1793); Concert favori, E (London, 1800); B for 4 hands, listed in Breitkopf catalogue, 1785–7, CZ-Pnm; D, D, Pnm; Rondo concerto, E, Pnm; E, Pnm*; F, KRa; C, A-Wgm; C, Wn; Fantasia concertante, d, Wn; E, B-Bc; F, B, BR-Rn [without catalogue numbers]
Sym. concertante, II:1, E, perf. 1798, A-Wn; Sym. concertante, II:2, C, Wn; Ov., III:2, D, Wgm; 2 cl concs., V:1–2, E, E, before 1790, CZ-Pnm; 5 sets of dances, VII:1–5, A-Wn [nos.1, 3–5 arr. pf]; march, VII:6, lost [arr. 2vv, hpd]

chamber
6 str qts, VIII:1–6: B, G, E (1790) [nos.2–3 arr. trios; no.3 partly arr. trio]; C, A, F (1791) [nos.4–5 arr. trios]: all ed. in RRMCE, xli (1994)
63 trios (sonatas), IX:1–63, pf/hpd, vn/fl, vc: D, F, E (1780) [arr. duos]; C, G, B (1781); C, A, E (1786) [no.8 arr. duo]; G, c, F (1787) [arr. duos]; B, A, g (1788); E, D, e (1789); B, G, C (1791); C (1792); G, E (Paris, ?c1792) [arr. of str qts]; C, A, op.33 (Paris, 1793) [arr. of str qts]; D, F, G (1793); F, C, e (1795); B, D, G (1796) [arr. 2 vn]; F, G, D (1799); Grand Sonatas, G, B, F, C, A, g, 1798–9 (London, ?c1799); E, A, B (London, 1800); D, E, C, 1801 (1802); B, D, E, 1803 (London, 1804); B, F, C, 1817 (London, n.d.); D, G, E, 1817 (London, n.d.); D, C, B, c1805–6 (London, 1800); E, CZ-Pnm [arr. partly from str qt]
31 duos, X:1–11, 13–24 and others (pf, vn, unless otherwise stated): E, C (Paris, 1785) [arr. of kbd sonatas]; G, c, F (Paris, ?c1785) [arr. of trios]; 6 sonatas, E, G, D, B, f, G, op.23 (Paris, n.d.); g, C, A (London, ?c1788) [arr. of kbd sonatas]; f, A, E (London, ?c1788) [arr. of kbd sonatas]; e, C, D, XV:7–9, fl, vc (London, after 1792); D (London, c1820) [arr. of kbd sonata]; C (London, c1820) [arr. of kbd sonata]; Sonata, XII:49, G (London, ?c1820); 6 [3] grands duos symphoniques, XV:1–3, D, B, G, 2 vn (Paris, n.d.) [arr. of trios, no.3 arr. of La chasse, kbd]; D, XV:6, vn, va, A-Wgm; A, CZ-Pnm [arr. of trio]; D, F, E, Pu [arr. of trios]
2 serenades, VI:1–2, D, E, vn, va, b, fl, bn, hn, op.11 (Offenbach, 1787); 16 fanfares, XV:5, 3 hn, JIa; 2 divertimentos, VI:9–10, E, E, pf/hpd, 2 vn, 2 ob, 2 hn, A-Wn; 3 divertimentos, VI:4–5, 7, D, D, E, 2 cl, bn, 2 hn, CZ-Pnm; Nocturne, VI:6, D, fl, vn, 2 va, vc/basset hn, Pnm; Trio, XV:4, G, fl, vn, vc, Pnm; Parthia, VI:3, F, 2 va, fl, 2 cl, 2 bn, 2 hn, D-W; Parthia, VI:8, F, 2 fl, 2 cl, 2 bn, 2 hn, RUS-SPsc

keyboard
7 sonatas for 4 hands, XI:1–7: F (?c1781); B (1784); F (1784); B (1789), C, F, D, op.12 (Paris, n.d.)
49 solo sonatas, XII:1–48, 50: F, E, D (1780); B, A, c (1780); E, e, G (1784), no.3 also pubd with others, F, C (Paris, 1784) [no.5 arr. duo]; D (Amsterdam, n.d.) [arr. duo], E, C (1784) [arr. duo]; g, C, A (1785) [arr. duo]; f, A, E (1785) [arr. duo]; F, C, d (1786); D, a, E (1788); B, G, c (1789); F, A, g (1791); E, C, f (1793); G (London, ?c1797); E, c, d, 1803 (London, 1807); F, before 1773, RUS-SPsc; A, 1776, CZ-Pnm; C, A-Wn; E, Wn; Grandes sonates, B, A, e, I-PAc; G, F, E, before Oct 1806 (London, 1809)
Other solo works: La chasse, XIII:2, F (1781) [arr. 2 vn]; Ov., III:1, G (London, ?c1785); Minuet, XIV:6 (1789); XII Menuetten, XIV:7 (1793); XV neue deutsche Tänze, XIV:8 (1793) [arr. of orch dances]; 6 écossaises, XIV: 9 (?1793); 15 deutsche Tänze, XIV:9 (?1793) [arr. of orch dances]; 6 contredanses, XIV:5 (1795) [arr. of orch dances]; march, XIV:10 (c1797); 3 caprices, XIII:3–5, E, B, c (1798); 12 Pieces … for the Use of Beginners, XIII:6–17 (London, 1799); 12 neue deutsche Tanze, XIV:11, A-Wn [arr. of orch dances]; andante and march, XIII:1, 1779–80, D-Bsb; 23 minuets, 1 polonaise, XIV:1–4, ?1778, CZ-Pnm

BIBLIOGRAPHY
DlabacžkL, ii
G.J. Dlabacž: ‘Versuch eines Verzeichnisses der vorzüglichern Tonkünstler in oder aus Böhmen’, Materialien zur alten und neuen Statistik von Böhmen, ed. J.A. Riegger, xii (Leipzig and Prague, 1794), 225–98, esp. 249
J.F. von Schönfeld, ed.: Jb der Tonkunst von Wien und Prag (Vienna, 1796/R), 33
R. Sondheimer: ‘Die formale Entwicklung der vorklassischen Sinfonie’, AMw, iv (1922), 85–99, 123–39
H.J. Wedig, ed.: Beethovens Streichquartett op.18 Nr.1 und seine erste Fassung (Bonn, 1922), 8
E. Alberti-Radanowicz: ‘Das Wiener Lied von 1789–1815’, SMw, x (1923), 37–76
G. Löbl: Die Klaviersonate bei Leopold Kozeluch (diss., U. of Vienna, 1937)
C. Hopkinson and C.B. Oldman: ‘Thomson's Collections of National Song’, Transactions of the Edinburgh Bibliographical Society, ii/1 (1940); addenda and corrigenda, iii/2 (1954), 123–4
O.E. Deutsch: ‘Kozeluch ritrovato’, ML, xxvi (1945), 47–50
A. Weinmann: Verzeichnis der Verlagswerke des Musikalischen Magazins in Wien (Vienna, 1950, 2/1979)
K. Pfannhauser: ‘Wer war Mozarts Amtsnachfolger?’, Acta mozartiana, iii (1956), 6–13
M. Poštolka: Leopold Koželuh: život a dílo [Life and works] (Prague, 1964) [with thematic catalogue, bibliography; Eng. and Ger. summary]
C. Flamm: Leopold Koželuch: Biographie und stilkritische Untersuchung der Sonaten für Klavier, Violine und Violoncello (diss., U. of Vienna, 1968)
C. Flamm: ‘Ein Verlegerbriefwechsel zur Beethovenzeit’, Beethoven-Studien, ed. E. Schenk (Vienna, 1970), 57–110
G. Balassa: ‘Az elsö bécsi klasszikus iskola klarinétversenyei (1770–1810)’ [Clarinet concertos of the first Viennese school], Magyar zene, xviii (1977), 49–74, 134–83
B. Edelmann: ‘Haydns Il Ritorno di Tobia und der Wandel des “Geschmacks” in Wien nach 1780’, Joseph Haydn: Cologne 1982, 189–214
J. Beránek: ‘K otázce hudební složky ?eských korunova?ních slavností v roce 1791: na okraj jednoho problému mozartovské historiografie’ [Concerning the question of the music at the Bohemian coronation ceremonies in 1791: remarks on a problem of Mozart historiography], MMC, no.30 (1983), 81–110 [with Ger. summary]
R. Hickman: ‘Leopold Kozeluch and the Viennese quatuor concertant’, College Music Symposium, xxvi (1986), 42–52
K. Komlós: ‘The Viennese Keyboard Trio in the 1780s: Sociological Background and Contemporary Reception’, ML, lxviii (1987), 222–34
J.A. Rice: ‘Muzzarelli, Koželuh e La ritornata figlia di Ottone II (1794): il baletto viennese ordinato nello spirito di Noverre’, NRMI, xxiv (1990), 1–46

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