Zemlinsky [Zemlinszky], Alexander (von)
(b Vienna, 14 Oct 1871; d Larchmont, NY, 15 March 1942). Austrian composer and conductor. Although closely linked to the Second Viennese School (Schoenberg was his pupil), Zemlinsky was no outright revolutionary. While undisputedly a conductor of the first rank and an interpreter of integrity, he lacked ‘star quality’ and was overshadowed by more domineering personalities. His music is distinguished by an almost overpowering emotional intensity. It took several decades before it became known and began to be appreciated.
His father, born in Vienna of Slovakian Catholic descent, converted to Judaism in 1870; his mother, born in Sarajevo, was the daughter of a mixed Sephardi-Muslim marriage. At the age of four he showed aptitude at the piano, and after completing his regular schooling in 1886 he enrolled at the Vienna Conservatory, studying the piano with Door, harmony and counterpoint with Krenn and Robert Fuchs (1888–90), and composition (1890–92) with the latter's brother, J.N. Fuchs. From 1893 onwards his first chamber compositions were performed at the Wiener Tonkünstlerverein, in whose concerts he also often appeared as pianist and conductor. Brahms was impressed by his work and recommended him to Simrock. In 1895–6 Zemlinsky conducted an amateur orchestra, the Polyhymnia, in which Schoenberg played the cello. Their friendship, initially an informal teacher-pupil relationship, became close: Schoenberg composed his D major Quartet under Zemlinsky's supervision, and his op.1 lieder are dedicated in gratitude to his ‘teacher and friend’. Also in 1896, with the opera Sarema (for which Schoenberg had prepared much of the vocal score), Zemlinsky won the Luitpold Prize in Munich; in 1900 Mahler gave the première of his second opera, Es war einmal …, at the Vienna Hofoper. In 1901 Schoenberg married his sister, Mathilde, and between April and November of that year Zemlinsky himself became passionately involved with his pupil Alma Schindler. She taunted him with his diminutive stature and unattractive appearance, however, and ultimately rejected him in favour of Mahler.
From 1903 Zemlinsky taught orchestration at the Schwarzwald school, where his pupils included Berg, Horwitz, Jalowetz, Erwin Stein and Webern (a later, private composition pupil was Korngold). In 1904, with Mahler's support, he and Schoenberg founded the Vereinigung Schaffender Tonkünstler to promote new music in Vienna. But from 1900, due to the early death of his father, he was also obliged to seek regular paid employment. Until 1903 he was Kapellmeister at the Carltheater, and from 1903 at the Theater an der Wien (both operetta houses). In 1904 he was appointed chief conductor at the Volksoper, where the repertory extended to Mozart and Wagner (and, in 1906, to the Viennese première of Salome). In 1907 he joined Mahler at the Hofoper; after the latter's resignation he was engaged at Mannheim, but the contract was not implemented. In 1908, returning to the Volksoper, he conducted the influential Viennese première of Dukas' Ariane et Barbe-bleue; his own Kleider machen Leute followed in 1910.
The acclaim with which each new work of his had been greeted gradually abated, and in 1911 he acepted the musical directorship of the Neues Deutsches Theater in Prague. Although the theatre schedule allowed little time for composition, his finest works – the Maeterlinck songs, the Second Quartet, the Lyrische Symphonie, Eine florentinische Tragödie and Der Zwerg – date from his Prague period. His assistants included Kleiber (1911–12), Webern (1917–18) and Szell (1919–20), and Viktor Ullmann as chorus master (1921–7). With the founding of the Czech Republic in 1918, the position of the German minority became precarious, but Zemlinsky proved an able diplomat and succeeded in securing the future of the Deutsches Landestheater, as it was now renamed. In 1920 he was appointed rector of the Deutsche Akademie für Musik und Bildende Kunst, where his pupils in his composition masterclass included Krása. From 1923 he was a frequent guest conductor with the Czech PO, playing a key role in establishing that orchestra's Mahler tradition; abroad he became a champion of Czech music, conducting notable premières of Smetana, Janá?ek and Suk. As an opera conductor he cultivated ensemble theatre at a high level and was particularly admired for his Mozart and Strauss: Stravinsky recalled Figaro in Prague as the most satisfying opera performance opera he had ever heard. In 1924 Zemlinsky conducted the world première of Schoenberg's Erwartung at the Prague ISCM Festival, but relations with his brother-in-law subsquently deteriorated – partly for personal reasons, partly due to disagreement over the technique of 12-note composition. When Schoenberg reverted to Judaism in 1933, Zemlinsky failed to follow suit: the rift was complete. While he continued to support the music of Schoenberg, and particularly of Berg, whose Wozzeck fragments he performed in 1925, his interest in other recent developments led him also to champion the music of Hindemith, Krenek, Schulhoff, Stravinsky and Weill.
Despite the stability of his Prague existence, he made several attempts to return to Vienna or further his career in Germany. In 1923 Max von Schillings offered him the post of Generalmusikdirektor at the Staatsoper in Berlin; his refusal, prompted by the galloping inflation then prevailing in Germany, proved to be a serious miscalculation. The advent of Hans Wilhelm Steinberg as first Kapellmeister in Prague caused an uneasy rivalry, nurtured by the press, and in 1927 Zemlinsky accepted Klemperer's invitation to Berlin, in a subordinate position at the Kroll Oper. When the theatre was closed in 1931, Zemlinsky was offered the position of Generalmusikdirektor at Wiesbaden, but he chose to remain in Berlin, teaching score-reading at the Musikhochschule and expanding his activities as guest conductor to France, Italy, Russia and Spain. In December of that year he conducted the first Berlin production of Weill's Mahagonny. His setting of Klabund's Kreidekreis, completed in 1932, reflects a certain influence of Weill, but also of Krenek's Johnny spielt auf.
With the highly acclaimed Zürich world première of Der Kreidekreis in 1933 Zemlinsky broke a creative silence of some six years. Forced to leave Germany earlier that year (although his music continued to be performed there until 1935), he returned to Vienna and concentrated his energies on composition. He completed the short score of Der König Kandaules in 1936 but was obliged to abandon the orchestration at the time of the Anschluss, in March 1938. In September he fled with his wife and daughter via Prague to New York. Bodanzky had promised to perform Kandaules at the Metropolitan Opera, but the libretto was deemed unsuitable and the score set aside. Obliged to compose school pieces and other trivia in order to eke out a living, Zemlinsky started work on a new opera, Circe, but in the autumn of 1939 he was crippled by a stroke. Partial reconciliation with Schoenberg and a nationwide NBC broadcast of the Sinfonietta under Mitropoulos could only momentarily alleviate the gloom of his final years. Although the New York Times published an obituary, in Europe his death went virtually unnoticed.
Following the example of Brahms and Robert Fuchs, Zemlinsky adopted and refined the technique of developing variation (maximal exploitation, modification and transmutation of minimal thematic particles). His textures are predominantly polyphonic; the tradition of ‘Viennese espressivo’ determines the inflections of his melodic line; in his harmony, which upholds longstanding Austro-German conventions of key symbolism, Zemlinsky seeks innovatory solutions but eschews the furthest extremes of dissonance. ‘A great artist, who possesses everything needed to express the essentials, must respect the boundaries of beauty, even if he extends them far further than hitherto’ (letter to Schoenberg, 18 February 1902). He remained true to this credo throughout his creative life: ultimately, the breach with Schoenberg was inevitable. Although his music demonstrates strong emotional affinity with that of Berg, Zemlinsky never entirely crossed the threshold of atonality; and where Berg sought the most logical solution to each structural problem, Zemlinsky delighted in asymmetry, in the subtle aberration of logical processes. Craftsmanship of a consistently high level is coupled in his music with a sure instinct for vocal writing and a precise ear for instrumental sonority.
In his earlier works Zemlinsky steered a middle course between the antipodes of Wagner and Brahms. Yet Sarema and Es war einmal … , despite their indebtedness to the former, demonstrate an individual talent for colour and dramatic pacing. The First Quartet and the Clarinet Trio, overtly Brahmsian in form and content, possess a nervous intensity typical of the fin-de-siècle artist and far removed from the objectivity of their classical models. The outcome of the Alma Schindler affair changed Zemlinsky radically. In Die Seejungfrau, his first musical reaction to this personal debacle, emotional intensity often rises to fever pitch. Despite an incohesive libretto, in which Alma is indirectly depicted both as fairy princess and outcast woman, Der Traumgörge contains some of his finest music. With the large-scale free forms of the two Oscar Wilde operas Zemlinsky achieved a striking integration of music and drama, a ‘seismographic reactivity to the many stimuli with which he permeated himself’ (Adorno, 1963). Der Zwerg is the catharsis of his Alma-instilled idée fixe, the ‘tragedy of an ugly man’. The early Symphonies in D minor and B major had shown that techniques of developing variation were ultimately incompatible with traditional sonata form. Applied to developing variation and every other musical parameter, ‘seismographic’ structure enabled Zemlinsky to generate tightly argued large-scale forms within a symphonic outer framework. The most striking examples of this art are the Second Quartet (also notable for its exploitation of polyrhythm) and the Lyrische Symphonie (1922–3).
In 1924 the Third Quartet, with its angular lines, irregular rhythms, astringent harmonies and spare textures, abruptly ushered in a new style. The ensuing five years were almost barren (an operatic project, Der heilige Vitalis, and a six-movement string quartet were abandoned), but the Symphonische Gesänge and Der Kreidekreis consolidated the process of rejuvenation. The Fourth Quartet (written on the death of Berg) and the lieder opp.22 and 27 carry the terse, pessimistic manner of the preceding works to its logical conclusion, while the Sinfonietta, Psalm xiii and Der König Kandaules move freely between the composer's older and newer styles.
Among his smaller works, Zemlinsky's lieder stand out as models of craftsmanship and artistic sensibility. He possessed an instinctive empathy for verse wide ranging in style and origin, from Wunderhorn poetry to Franco-Belgian symbolism, from the erotic intensity of Dehmel to the wry humour of the Überbrettl. The Maeterlinck songs (1910–13) are arguably his masterpiece in this field, but earlier collections, particularly opp.7, 8 and 10, are also very fine.
Had Zemlinsky outlived the war, he would, like Korngold, Wellesz and Hans Gál, have experienced his eclipse by the post-Webernian serialists. Together with Schreker, to whom he has often been likened, he all but vanished from concert and opera programmes until the later 1960s. Thereafter, in the wake of the rehabilitation of Mahler, his music experienced a renaissance. Major works, such as the Fourth Quartet and Psalm xiii, which had neither been published nor performed during his lifetime, were discovered among his posthumous papers; Die Seejungfrau, which had not been performed since 1908, was reassembled from separate manuscripts in Vienna and Washington; Der Traumgörge, scheduled for perfomance by Mahler in 1907 but cancelled by Weingartner, finally received its world première in 1980.
Letters, source material
A. Zemlinsky: ‘Brahms und die neuere Generation: persönliche Erinnerungen’, Musikblätter des Anbruch, iv (1922), 69–70; repr. in Brahms and His World, ed. W.M. Frisch (Princeton, NJ, 1990), 205–10
A. Zemlinsky: ‘Lyrische Symphonie’, Pult und Taktstock, i (1924), 10–11
A. Zemlinsky: ‘Einige Worte über das Studium von Schönbergs Erwartung’, Pult und Taktstock, iv (1927), 44–5
A. Zemlinsky: ‘Jugenderinnerungen’, Arnold Schönberg zum 60. Geburtstag(Vienna, 1934), 33–5
A. Beaumont, ed.: ‘Alexander Zemlinsky: Der Triumph der Zeit – Drei Ballettstücke – Ein Tanzpoem, eine Dokumentation’, Über Musiktheater, eine Festschrift, ed. S. Harpner and B. Gotzes (Munich, 1992), 13–31
H. Weber, ed.: Briefwechsel mit Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg und Franz Schreker (Darmstadt, 1995)
A. Beaumont and S. Rode-Breymann, eds.: Alma Mahler-Werfel: Tagebuch-Suiten 1898–1902 (Frankfurt, 1997; Eng. trans., 1988)
Biographical, analytical studies
R. Heuberger: Im Foyer: gesammelte Essays über das Opernrepertoire der Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1901)
R. Specht: ‘Die Jungwiener Tondichter’, Die Musik, ix/2 [no.7] (1909–10), 3–16, esp. 9–12
R.S. Hoffmann: ‘Alexander von Zemlinsky’, Der Merker, ii (1910–11), 193–7
Der Auftakt, nos.14–15 i (1920–21), 197–240 [Zemlinsky issue]
P. Stefan: ‘Zemlinsky’, Musikblätter des Anbruch, vii (1932), 126–7
T.W. Adorno: ‘Zemlinsky’, Quasi una fantasia: musikalische Schriften II (Frankfurt, 1963; Eng. trans., 1992), 155–80
H. Weber: ‘Zemlinsky in Wien 1871–1911’, AMw, xxviii (1971), 77–96
O. Kolleritsch, ed.: Alexander Zemlinsky: Tradition in Umkreis der Wiener Schule, Studien zur Wertungsforschung, vii (Graz, 1976)
H. Weber: Alexander Zemlinsky, Österreichische Komponisten des XX. Jahrhunderts, xxiii (Vienna, 1977)
L.A. Oncley: ‘The Works of Alexander Zemlinsky: a Chronological List’, Notes, xxxiv (1977–8), 291–302
R. Stephan: Alexander Zemlinsky: ein unbekannter Meister der Wiener Schule (Kiel, 1978)
A. Clayton: ‘Brahms und Zemlinsky’, Brahms Congress: Vienna 1983, 81–93
W. Loll: Zwischen Tradition und Avantgarde: die Kammermusik Alexander Zemlinskys, Kieler Schriften zur Musikwissenschaft, xxxiv (Kassel, 1990)
ÖMz, iv/4 (1992) [special number]
O. Biba: Alexander Zemlinsky: bin ich kein Wiener? (Vienna, 1992) [exhibition catalogue]
H. Krones, ed.: Alexander Zemlinsky: Ästhetik, Stil und Umfeld, Wiener Schriften zur Stilkunde und Aufführungspraxis, i (Vienna, Cologne and Weimar, 1995)
U. Sommer: Alexander Zemlinsky: Der König Kandaules, Musik-Konzepte, xcii–xciv (Munich, 1996)
Zemlinsky [Zemlinszky], Alexander (von)
(b Vienna, 14 Oct 1871; d Larchmont, ny, 15 March 1942). Austrian composer and conductor. He received his musical training at the Vienna Conservatory (1884–92), where he studied the piano with Anton Door and composition with Robert and J. N. Fuchs. Most of his early chamber and orchestral works take their bearings from Brahms, who discussed some of them with Zemlinsky and recommended the Clarinet Trio op.3 to his publisher Simrock. The Trio and the Second Symphony (1897) were among several early works to be awarded prizes. However, Zemlinsky, as Schoenberg later testified, was equally enthralled by Wagner, and he transmitted this enthusiasm to his pupil (who was also to become his brother-in-law). In 1896 Zemlinsky’s first opera, Sarema, was one of the winning entries in the Bavarian opera competition named after the Prince Regent, Luitpold. The first performance was given at the Munich Hoftheater on 10 October 1897, with Milka Ternina creating the role of the tragic Circassian heroine torn between her love for a Russian officer and that for her native land.
While Sarema still owed something to the grand opera model, Zemlinsky’s second opera, Es war einmal, was a fairy-tale comedy based on a play by the Danish playwright Holger Drachmann. The genre may have been suggested by the success of Goldmark’s Das Heimchen am Herd, which Zemlinsky is said to have greeted ‘with sheer delight’. The opera was accepted for the Vienna Hofoper by Mahler, who insisted on numerous changes to the libretto and music before conducting the first performance on 22 January 1900. The main roles were created by Selma Kurz (Princess) and Erik Schmedes (Prince). Eduard Hanslick criticized Zemlinsky’s obvious debt to Wagner and his use of folksong. Mahler also had reservations about the opera, which he thought lacked originality. He refused to accept Zemlinsky’s next work for the stage, a ballet by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Das gläserne Herz (1901).
In 1900 Zemlinsky embarked on a career as a Kapellmeister that took him from the Carltheater, Vienna (where he conducted such works as Heinrich Reinhardt’s immensely popular operetta Das süsse Mädel), to the Theater an der Wien, where he worked with the famous actor Alexander Girardi in 1903. At this time he was also involved in Ernst von Wolzogen’s Überbrettl cabaret, for which he wrote some songs and a mimodrama, Ein Lichtstrahl. In 1904 he was appointed principal conductor at the newly founded Volksoper, where, apart from a season at the Hofoper under the tutelage of Mahler, he remained until 1911, conducting the first performance by a Viennese company of Salome and the Viennese premières of Dukas’ Ariane et Barbe-bleue and Puccini’s Tosca.
Many of Zemlinsky’s works after the turn of the century have an autobiographical element. Thus the tone poem Die Seejungfrau (1902–3), based on Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy-tale, may well have had its origins in the composer’s thwarted love for his pupil Alma Schindler. Zemlinsky’s third opera, Der Traumgörge (1904–6), was a musical offering to his first wife, Ida, whom he married in 1907. However, because of various difficulties, the work was not staged until 1980. Zemlinsky conducted the first performance of his fourth opera, Kleider machen Leute (1907–9), at the Volksoper on 2 December 1910; the revised version of 1921 was first performed in Prague in 1922.
In 1911 Zemlinsky moved to Prague to become principal conductor at the Neues Deutsches Theater, where, as Stravinsky, Schoenberg and others testified, his Mozart and Wagner performances and his empathetic conducting of contemporary works became legendary. Perhaps his greatest achievement in this regard was the first performance in 1924 of Schoenberg’s Erwartung. The Prague years witnessed the composition of a number of important works. In 1915, shortly after completing his most substantial chamber work, String Quartet no.2, Zemlinsky began work on Eine florentinische Tragödie, a one-act opera that sought to emulate the success of such ‘Renaissance’ operas as Schreker’s Die Gezeichneten, Korngold’s Violanta and Schillings’s Mona Lisa. In Der Zwerg (1919–21) Zemlinsky returned to the ‘tragedy of the ugly man’, a subject that had already obsessed him ten years earlier. As Franz Werfel noted, he was moving away from music drama towards opera. This is borne out not only by the excruciating verismo ending but also by the prevalence of what Alban Berg called ‘the wonderful flow of glorious melody’. The Lyrische Symphonie (1922–3) was the last of the major works written in the decade that saw Zemlinsky at the height of his powers.
In 1927 Zemlinsky joined Klemperer at the Krolloper in Berlin. Here he composed his next opera, Der Kreidekreis (1930–31), which mingles Chinese elements (the pentatonic scale) with devices that had recently become popular (jazz, spoken dialogue and melodrama). In 1927 he conducted Krenek’s Jonny spielt auf, and in 1931 the Berlin première of Weill’s Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny.
In 1931 Zemlinsky left the Krolloper and in 1933, after the advent of the Nazis in Germany, he returned to Vienna. In 1935 he completed the short score and much of the orchestration of Der König Kandaules, an opera based on André Gide’s play. After the Anschluss Zemlinsky and his family fled to the USA. He had hopes of completing Der König Kandaules, a work he termed ‘ultra-modern’; however, the bedroom scene militated against its acceptance by the Metropolitan Opera, and the orchestration was never completed. Early in 1939 he began work on another opera, Circe, to a libretto by Irma Stein-Firner, but it remained unfinished at his death.
Despite his close ties with the Second Viennese School, Zemlinsky did not explore atonality and serialism. His pupil E. W. Korngold recalled that he found it impossible ‘to repress the active inner tonal feeling’. Thus his operas must be seen in the context of contemporaries such as Schreker, Strauss and d’Albert, whose success he sought to emulate. At their best they bear out Schoenberg’s remark that his ‘ideas, his forms, his sonorities and every turn of the music sprang directly from the action, from the scenery, and from the singers’ voices with a naturalness and distinction of supreme quality’.
See also Florentinische tragödie, eine; Kleider machen leute; Kreidekreis, der; Traumgörge, der; and Zwerg, der.
Sarema, 1893–5 (3, Adolf von Zemlinsky, after R. von Gottschall: Die Rose vom Kaukasus), Munich, Hof, 10 Oct 1897, D-Mbs, US-Wc, vs (Vienna, 1899)
Es war einmal, 1897–9 (Vorspiel, 3, M. Singer, after H. Drachmann), Vienna, Hof, 22 Jan 1900, A-Wn, US-Wc
Malwa, 1902 (?Hülschenreiter, after M. Gor’kiy), inc., Wc
Der Traumgörge, 1904–6 (2, Nachspiel, L. Feld), Nuremberg, Opernhaus, 11 Oct 1980, A-Wn, US-Wc, vs (Vienna, 1906)
Kleider machen Leute, 1907–9 (musikalische Komödie, Vorspiel, 3, Feld, after G. Keller), Vienna, Volksoper, 2 Dec 1910, A-Wn, US-Wc; rev. (Vorspiel, 2), Prague, Neues Deutsches, 22 April 1922, Wc, vs (Vienna, 1922)
Eine florentinische Tragödie, op.16 (1, O. Wilde: A Florentine Tragedy, trans. M. Meyerfeld), Stuttgart, Hof, 30 Jan 1917, Wc, vs (Vienna, 1916)
Herrn Arnes Schatz, 1917 (after S. Lagerlöf), inc., Wc
Raphael, ?1918 (G. Klaren, after H. de Balzac: Le peau de chagrin), inc., Wc
Der Zwerg, op.17, 1919–21 (1, Klaren, after Wilde: The Birthday of the Infanta), Cologne, Neues Theater, 28 May 1922, Wc (Vienna, 1923)
Vitalis, 1926 (after Keller: Der schlim-heilige Vitalis), inc., Wc
Der Kreidekreis, 1930–31 (3, after Klabund), Zürich, Stadt, 14 Oct 1933, Wc (Vienna, 1933)
Der König Kandaules, 1935–6 (3, A. Gide: Le roi Candaule, trans. F. Blei), inc., Wc
Circe, 1939 (5, I. Stein-Firner), orchestration inc., Hamburg, Staatsoper, 6 Oct 1996, Wc
E. Hanslick: ‘Es war einmal’, Aus neuer und neuester Zeit (Berlin, 1900), 44–50
R. S. Hoffmann: ‘Alexander von Zemlinsky’, Der Merker, ii (1911), 193–7
F. Adler: Eine florentinische Tragödie: Einführung (Vienna, ?1917)
G. Klaren: ‘Zur Technik des Opernbuches’, Musikblätter des Anbruch, ii (1920), 215–21
Der Auftakt, i (1921) [Zemlinsky issue, incl.: R. S. Hoffmann: ‘Zemlinskys Opern’, 211–16; G. Klaren: ‘Zemlinsky, vom psychologischen Standpunkt’, 204–7; E. W. Korngold: ‘Erinnerungen an Zemlinsky aus meiner Lehrzeit’, 230–32; L. Laber: ‘Zemlinsky auf dem Theater’, 223–4; A. Schoenberg: ‘Gedanken über Zemlinsky’, 228–30, Eng. trans. in Style and Idea, 1975; F. Werfel: ‘Zemlinsky’, 197–200]
J. Korngold: ‘Kleider machen Leute’, ‘Eine florentinische Tragödie’, Deutsches Opernschaffen der Gegenwart (Leipzig and Vienna, 1921), 240–47, 247–53
H. Teweles: Theater und Publikum: Erinnerungen und Erfahrungen (Prague, 1927)
P. W. Jacob: ‘Alexander Zemlinsky: zur Wiederaufführung seiner Oper Der Kreidekreis’, Blätter der Städtischen Bühnen Dortmund, xix (1954–5)
T. W. Adorno: ‘Zemlinsky’, Quasi una fantasia (Frankfurt, 1963), 155–80
A. Mahler: ‘Alexander Zemlinsky’, Mf, xxiv (1971), 250–60
H. Weber: ‘Zemlinsky in Wien 1871–1911’, AMw, xxviii (1971), 77–96
A. Mahler: ‘Alexander Zemlinskys Prager Jahre’, HV, ix (1972), 237–47
S. Stompor: ‘Alexander Zemlinsky v Praze’, HRo, xxvi (1973), 271–8
H. Curjel: Experiment Krolloper 1927–1931 (Munich, 1975)
L. Oncley: The Published Works of Alexander Zemlinsky (diss., Indiana U, 1975)
O. Kolleritsch, ed.: Alexander Zemlinsky: Tradition im Umkreis der Wiener Schule (Graz, 1976) [incl. G. Gruber: ‘Klangkomposition in den Opern Zemlinskys’, 93–100]
H. Weber: Alexander Zemlinsky: eine Studie, Österreichische Komponisten des 20. Jahrhunderts, xxiii (Vienna, 1977)
R. Stephan: ‘Alexander Zemlinsky: ein unbekannter Meister der Wiener Schule’, Kieler Vorträge zum Theater, iv (Kiel, 1978)
A. Partsch: Das Opernschaffen Zemlinskys (diss., U. of Vienna, 1979)
H. Weber: ‘Stil: Allegorie und Secession: zu Zemlinsky’s Ballettmusik nach Hofmannsthals “Der Triumph der Zeit”’, Art Nouveau: Jugendstil und Musik, ed. J. Stenzl (Zürich, 1980), 135–50
A. Clayton: The Operas of Alexander Zemlinsky (diss., U. of Cambridge, 1983)
A. Clayton: ‘Zemlinsky’s One-act Operas’, MT, cxxiv (1983), 474–7
S. B. Würffel: ‘“… und sage deine letzten Worte in Schweigen”: Anmerkungen zur gegenwärtigen Zemlinsky-Renaissance’, Mf, xxxvii (1984), 191–206
A. Clayton: ‘Weitere Anmerkungen zur Zemlinsky-Renaissance’, Mf, xxxviii (1985), 155–7