Emotions Revealed Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life ~ [TSG].pdf
Emotions Revealed Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life ~ [TSG].nfo
Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life
Author(s): Paul Ekman
Publisher: Times Books; 1st edition
Date : April 7, 2003
Pages : 288
Format : Pdf
Quality : Excellent
Language : English
ISBN-10 : 0805072756
ISBN-13 : N.A.
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Everyone has an understanding of emotion, but few people agree on what the word really means. For example, how is 'emotion' differentiated from 'feeling'? Are emotion and logic independent? This book should help you explore these questions.
Ekman starts with arguments for the universality of emotional display. All humans produce the same facial displays when engaged in a moment of anger or sadness. Reactive displays are generally 'honest' but fleeting. All socially adept humans have learned to disguise their emotional displays. Sometimes a high-speed camera is required to capture and 'freeze' the initial 'true' display. Given the difficulty of 'real time' determination of an emotional display's meaning, Ekman standardizes his approach on a suitably literal plane. For example, the raise eyebrow means 'X' in 'Y' percent of the population, but only 'Z' percent recognize it.
Here is an outline of characteristics Ekman uses to define emotions:
1. Emotions are experienced as feelings, a set of sensations that we experience and often are aware of.
2. An emotional episode can be brief (less than a second to several seconds). If it is longer, it is a mood
3. It is about something that matters to the person
4. We experience them as happening to us, they are not chosen.
5. We are constantly scanning our environment. Emotional responses are automatic reactions to these perceptions. In this sense, emotions are an 'early warning system'.
6. Refractory periods exist after the emotional response. During this refractory period, only perceptions that supports the emotional response is considered.
7. The refractory period may last a few minutes or much longer
8. We generally become aware of an emotion only after our attention begins to review it in the past tense.
9. There are universal emotional themes. We become emotional about matters that were relevant to our ancestors as well as ones we have found to matter in our own lives.
10. The desire to experience or not experience an emotion motivates much of behavior.
11. An efficient signal, clear, rapid and universal, informs those that witness the display. The knowledge gained makes social cooperation possible.