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(PC GAME) PLAY BACKGAMMON 2008 for Beginners, Intermediates and Experts zip

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Name:(PC GAME) PLAY BACKGAMMON 2008 for Beginners, Intermediates and Experts zip

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(PC GAME) PLAY BACKGAMMON 2008 - for Beginners, Intermediates and Experts.zip (Size: 8.04 MB) (Files: 1)

 (PC GAME) PLAY BACKGAMMON 2008 - for Beginners, Intermediates and Experts.zip

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PC GAME - Backgammon

Backgammon is a board game for two players in which the playing pieces are moved according to the roll of dice. A player wins by removing all of his checkers from the board. There are many variants of backgammon, most of which share common traits. Backgammon is a member of the tables family, one of the oldest classes of board games in the world.
Although luck plays an important role, there is a large scope for strategy. With each roll of the dice a player must choose from numerous options for moving his checkers and anticipate possible counter-moves by the opponent. Players may raise the stakes during the game. There is an established repertory of common tactics and occurrences.
Rules
The objective is to remove (bear off) all of one\'s own checkers from the board before one\'s opponent can do the same. The checkers are scattered at first and may be blocked or hit by the opponent. As the playing time for each individual game is short, it is often played in matches, where victory is awarded to the first player to reach a certain number of points.
Setup
Each side of the board has a track of 12 long triangles, called points. The points are considered to be connected across one edge of the board, forming a continuous track in the shape of a horseshoe, and are numbered from 1 to 24. Each player begins with two checkers on his 24-point, three checkers on his 8-point, and five checkers each on his 13-point and his 6-point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, each from his own 24-point towards his 1-point.
Points 1 through 6 are called the home board or inner board, and points 7 through 12 are called the outer board. The 7-point is referred to as the bar point, and the 13-point as the mid point.
Movement
To start the game, each player rolls one die, and the player with the higher number moves first using both the numbers shown. Both dice must land completely flat on the right hand side of the gameboard. The players then alternate turns, rolling two dice at the beginning of each turn.
After rolling the dice a player must, if possible, move his checkers according to the number of pips shown on each die. For example, if the player rolls a 6 and a 3 (notated as \"6-3\"), that player must move one checker six points forward, and another or the same checker three points forward. The same checker may be moved twice as long as the two moves are distinct: six and then three, or three and then six. If a player rolls two of the same number, called doubles, that player must play each die twice. For example, upon rolling a 5-5 that player may move up to four separate checkers forward five spaces each. For any roll, if a player can move both dice, that player is compelled to do so. If a player cannot move either dice in a roll, given the position of his checkers then that turn is over and the turn passes to the opponent.
If is possible to move either die, but not both, the higher number must be played. For example if a player rolls 6-3 and can only move a 6 or a 3, the 6 being the bigger number must be moved; if it is possible to move the 3 but not the 6 then the 3 is played. Further, if one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory.
For example, in the case of a 6-3 roll, no moves of 3 are possible by any checker. However there are 2 moves of a 6, with checker A or checker B. If checker A is moved 6, the 3 still cannot be played. If checker B is moved 6, a 3 now may be played. The rules state that the player is forced into moving checker B 6 points, and then 3. In short, the rules compel a player to exhaust every option available to complete both die moves where possible.
In the course of a move, a checker may land on any point that is unoccupied or is occupied only by a player\'s own checkers. It may also land on a point occupied by exactly one opposing checker; such a lone piece is called a blot. In this case, the blot has been hit, and is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface. A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers; thus, no point is ever occupied by checkers from both players simultaneously.
Checkers placed on the bar re-enter the game through the opponent\'s home board. A roll of 2 allows the checker to enter on the 23-point, a roll of 3 on the 22-point, and so forth. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the game.
When all of a player\'s checkers are in that player\'s home board, that player may start removing them; this is called bearing off. A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. A die may not be used to bear off checkers from a lower-numbered point unless there are no checkers on any higher points. For example if a player rolls a 6 and a 5, but has no checkers on the 6-point, though 2 checkers remain on the 5-point, then the 6 and the 5 must be used to bear off the 2 checkers from the 5-point. When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means \'the full value of the higher die\' is not fully utilized. For example, if a player has exactly 1 checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker 1 place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that piece off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.
If one player has not borne off any checkers by the time that player\'s opponent has borne off all fifteen, then the player has lost a gammon, which counts for double a normal loss. If the losing player has not borne off any checkers and still has checkers on the bar or in the opponent\'s home board, then the player has lost a backgammon, which counts for triple a normal loss.
Doubling cube
To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube may be put into play. A standard doubling cube is a six-sided die marked with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64. At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the board with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be \"centered on 1\". When the cube is centered, and before rolling the dice on his turn, either player may propose that the game be played for twice the current stakes. His opponent must either accept (\"take\") the doubled stakes or resign (\"drop\") the game immediately. If the opponent takes, the cube, showing the doubled stake, is moved to his side of the board. Thereafter, the right to re-double belongs exclusively to the player who last accepted a double. Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed with the corresponding power of two facing upward.
The game is rarely redoubled beyond four times the original stake, but there is no limit on the number of doubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to 128, 256, and so on. In money games, a player is often permitted to \"beaver\" when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.
A variant of the doubling cube \"beaver\" is the \"raccoon.\" The player who doubled his opponent, seeing him beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again (\"raccoon\") as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled. His opponent retains the doubling cube. E.g. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, whilst Black retains the cube. Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent (offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points) should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy Rule or the \"automatic double rule.\" If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player. The Murphy Rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing. When a player decides to double his opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown (e.g. if two automatic doubles have occurred putting the cube up to 4, the first in-game double will be for 8 points). The Murphy Rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.
The Jacoby rule allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted. This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon. The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play.
The Crawford rule is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player\'s opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up. Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game. After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. It is possible for a Crawford game never to occur in a match.
If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule, which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side. It was common in tournament play in the 1980s but is now rarely used.
Variants
There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the direction of the pieces and rules change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game. The roll of 1-2 is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any doubles move of his choice. A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of 1-2 or of doubles.
Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the 24-, 23- and 22-points. The game has been strongly solved, meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.
Russian backgammon is a variant in which players start with no checkers on the board, and both players move in the same direction to bear off in a common home board. In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn (with a few exceptions).
Another simple variant of Backgammon is to only allow a maximum of five checkers on any point. This variation is not part of the official rules, but has proved popular with casual players in some regions.
Strategy and tactics
Backgammon has an established opening theory, although it is less detailed than that of games like chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn. Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
The most direct strategy is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A \"running game\" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race. When this fails, one may opt for a \"holding game\", maintaining control of a point on one\'s opponent\'s side of the board, called an anchor. As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent\'s blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The \"priming game\" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime. A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backgammon A particularly successful priming effort may lead to a \"blitz\", which is a strategy of covering the entire home board as quickly as possible while keeping one\'s opponent on the bar. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A \"backgame\" is a strategy of placing two or more anchors in an opponent\'s home board, while building a prime in one\'s own board. The anchors obstruct the opponent\'s checkers and create opportunities to hit them as they move home. The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind; using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
\"Duplication\" refers to the placement of checkers such that one\'s opponent needs the same dice rolls to achieve different goals. For example, a player may position all of his blots in such a way that his opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once. \"Diversification\" refers to a complementary tactic of placing one\'s own checkers in such a way that more numbers are useful.
Many positions require a measurement of a player\'s standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off. The minimum total of dice rolls needed to move a player\'s checkers around and off the board is called the \"pip count\". The difference between the two players\' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader\'s racing advantage. Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play.
Social and competitive play
Club and tournament play
Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. Local clubs may hold informal gatherings, with members meeting at cafés and bars in the evening to play and converse. A few clubs offer additional services, maintaining their own facilities or offering computer analysis of troublesome plays.Some club leaders have noticed a recent growth of interest in backgammon, and attribute it to the game\'s popularity on the internet.
A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.
Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators. The top players at regional tournaments often compete in major national and international championships. Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars.
International competition
Prior to 1979, there was no single world championship competition in backgammon, although a number of major tournaments were held in Las Vegas, Nevada and the Bahamas. Since 1979, the World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo has been widely acknowledged as the top international tournament. The Monte Carlo tournament draws thousands of players and spectators, and is played over the course of a week.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly in St. Tropez, Rio de Janeiro, Dallas, and Venice.
Gambling
When backgammon is played for money, the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop. The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. As with most gambling games, successful play requires a combination of luck and skill, as a single dice roll can sometimes significantly change the outcome of the game.
Cheating
As with any possible gambling game, it is possible to cheat. Numerous cheating methods have been used in backgammon. Anyone who plays for money is at risk. These include (in person): moving the piece the wrong number of spaces; using magnetic, shaved, or weight-loaded dice; and using special throws to produce the dice number desired. Other situations may involve use of software assistance or receiving signals from a secret partner.

THIS SOFTWARE IS AVAILABLE IN 19 OTHER LANGUAGES :

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Backgammon je igra na plo?i za dva igra?a. Svaki igra? ima petnaest figura koji se mi?u izme?u dvadeset ?etiri trokuta (ta?aka) nakon bacanja kocke. Cilj igre je biti prvi ?ije ?e se figure poma?i s plo?e
El backgammon és un joc de tauler d\'estratègia i atzar on dos jugadors fan córrer cada un les seves 15 peces en una \"cursa d\'obstacles\" per un tauler de 24 posicions o fletxes segons els punts que marquen les tirades dos daus.
Vrhcáby (Backgamon, Wurfzabel) nebo nesprávn? vrchcáby, je stará desková hra pro dva hrá?e, ve které hraje roli jak náhoda, tak schopnosti hrá??. Ke h?e je pot?eba hrací deska (viz níže), 15 kamen? pro každého hrá?e (odlišené barvou, lze použít nap?. kameny z Go nebo Dámy), dv? b?žné hrací kostky (klasické šestist?nné, nap?. z ?lov??e, nezlob se!) a obvykle i speciální sázecí kosti?ka (viz odstavec o sázkách níže). Backgammon je jedna z nejstarších známých deskových her, p?edpokládá se, že se hrála ve starov?kém Egypt?, Sumeru, Mezopotámii ?i Persii.
Backgammon er et brætspil, der spilles af to spillere og består af 1 spillebræt, 2 x 15 brikker, 2 terninger (eventuelt 2 terninger til hver spiller) samt en dobleterning.
Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel.
Jeu en français
Τ?βλι
Απ? τη Βικιπα?δεια, την ελε?θερη εγκυκλοπα?δεια
Μετ?βαση σε: πλο?γηση, αναζ?τηση
Το τ?βλι ε?ναι επιτραπ?ζιο παιχν?δι για δ?ο πα?κτες, παραλλαγ? του οπο?ου ε?ναι το δυτικ? τ?βλι (backgammon). Κ?θε πα?κτης κατ?χει 15 πο?λια που κινο?νται σε ειδικ? ταμπλ? σ?μφωνα με τα αποτελ?σματα δυο ζαρι?ν. Σκοπ?ς του κ?θε πα?κτη ε?ναι να μαζ?ψει πρ?τος ?λα τα πο?λια απ? το ταμπλ?. Ο πα?κτης που ολοκληρ?νει πρ?τος το μ?ζεμα ε?ναι και ο νικητ?ς.
El antiguo juego de mesa para dos jugadores llamado tablas reales se rebautizó chaquete al volver a introducirse desde Francia y actualmente es conocido con el nombre inglés backgammon.
Le backgammon est un jeu de tables de hasard raisonné pour deux joueurs qui se joue sur un tablier avec des dés.
Il backgammon è un gioco da tavolo/sport per due giocatori (giochi).
Backgammon is een bordspel voor twee spelers. Het is een van de oudste spelen die ons bekend zijn. De Nederlandse variant van dit spel (met andere regels) wordt Tric Trac genoemd
Tryktrak (ang. backgammon; fr. tric-trac) – gra planszowa dla dwóch graczy.
O gamão é um jogo de tabuleiro para dois jogadores.
Backgammon on kahden pelaajan lautapeli. Pelissä molemmilla pelaajilla on 15 nappulaa, jotka liikkuvat 24 kolmion (kiilan) välillä, riippuen kahden nopan silmäluvuista. Pelin tavoitteena on saada ensimmäisenä kaikki nappulat pois laudalta. Backgammon on siis eräänlainen nopeuskilpailu.
Tavla, özel bir platform üzerinde 15 siyah, 15 beyaz ta?la oynanan iki ki?ilik oyun.
Bilindi?i kadar? ile, 1400 y?l önce ?ran ?ah? Nev?iyan\'?n veziri Büzur Mehir taraf?ndan 10 günde icat edilmi?tir. Tavlada kar??l?kl? alt??ar hane 12 ay?, 15 beyaz ve 15 siyah pul ay?n 15 gece ve 15 gündüzünü , kar??l?kl? 12\'?er hane de günün 24 saati temsil eder.
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