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thermodynamics an engineering approach [cengel - boles] --->SEED!, ENJOY, SEED!!

Introduction and Basic Concepts
1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy
Application Areas of Thermodynamics
1-2 Importance of Dimensions and Units
Some SI and English Units
Dimensional Homogeneity
Unity Conversion Ratios
1-3 Systems and Control Volumes
1-4 Properties of a System
1-5 Density and Specific Gravity
1-6 State and Equilibrium
The State Postulate
1-7 Processes and Cycles
The Steady-Flow Process
1-8 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Temperature Scales
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)
1-9 Pressure
Variation of Pressure with Depth
1-10 The Manometer
Other Pressure Measurement Devices
1-11 The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure
1-12 Problem-Solving Technique
Step 1: Problem Statement
Step 2: Schematic
Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations
Step 4: Physical Laws
Step 5: Properties
Step 6: Calculations
Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion
Engineering Software Packages
A Remark on Significant Digits
References and Suggested Reading

Chapter 2
Energy Conversion and General Energy Analysis
2-1 Introduction
2-2 Forms of Energy
Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy
Mechanical Energy
More on Nuclear Energy
2-3 Energy Transfer by Heat
Historical Background on Heat
2-4 Energy Transfer by Work
Electrical Work
2-5 Mechanical Forms of Work
Shaft Work
Spring Work
Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars
Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film
Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body
Nonmechanical Forms of Work
2-6 The First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy Balance
Energy Change of a System, ΔEsystem
Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout
2-7 Energy Conversion Efficiencies
2-8 Energy and Environment
Ozone and Smog
Acid Rain
The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change
Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 3
Properties of Pure Substances
3-1 Pure Substance
3-2 Phases of a Pure Substance
3-3 Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances
Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid
Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor
Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure
Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence
3-4 Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes
1 The T-v Diagram
2 The P-v Diagram
Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase
3 The P-T Diagram
The P-v-T Surface
3-5 Property Tables
Enthalpy—A Combination Property
1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States
1b Saturated Liquid–Vapor Mixture
2 Superheated Vapor
3 Compressed Liquid
Reference State and Reference Values
3-6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State
Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas?
3-7 Compressibility Factor—A Measure of Deviation from Ideal-Gas
3-8 Other Equations of State
Van der Waals Equation of State
Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State
Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State
Virial Equation of State
Topic of Special Interest
Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 4
Energy Analysis of Closed Systems
4-1 Moving Boundary Work
Polytropic Process
4-2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems
4-3 Specific Heats
4-4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases
Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases
4-5 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Solids and Liquids
Internal Energy Changes
Enthalpy Changes
Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 5
Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes
5-1 Conservation of Mass
Mass and Volume Flow Rates
Conservation of Mass Principle
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes
Special Case: Incompressible Flow
5-2 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid
Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid
Energy Transport by Mass
5-3 Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems
Energy Balance
5-4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices
1 Nozzles and Diffusers
2 Turbines and Compressors
3 Throttling Valves
4a Mixing Chambers
4b Heat Exchangers
5 Pipe and Duct Flow
5-5 Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow Processes
Mass Balance
Energy Balance
Topic of Special Interest: General Energy Equation
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 6
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
6-1 Introduction to the Second Law
6-2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs
6-3 Heat Engines
Thermal Efficiency
Can We Save Qout ?
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin–Planck Statement
6-5 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
Coefficient of Performance
Heat Pumps
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement
Equivalence of the Two Statements
6-6 Perpetual-Motion Machines
6-7 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
Internally and Externally Reversible Processes
6-8 The Carnot Cycle
The Reversed Carnot Cycle
6-9 The Carnot Principles
6-10 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale
6-11 The Carnot Heat Engine
The Quality of Energy
Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life
6-12 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump
Topics of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 7
7-1 Entropy
A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer
7-2 The Increase of Entropy Principle
Some Remarks about Entropy
7-3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances
7-4 Isentropic Processes
7-5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy
7-6 What Is Entropy?
Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life
7-7 The T ds Relations
7-8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids
7-9 The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis)
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis)
Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis)
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis)
Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume
7-10 Reversible Steady-Flow Work
Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least
Work when the Process Is Reversible
7-11 Minimizing the Compressor Work
Multistage Compression with Intercooling
7-12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices
Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines
Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps
Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles
7-13 Entropy Balance
Entropy Change of a System, ΔS system
Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout
1 Heat Transfer
2 Mass Flow
Entropy Generation, Sgen
Closed Systems
Control Volumes
Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat Transfer Process
Topics of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of Compressed Air
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 8
Exergy: A Measure of Work Potential
8-1 Exergy: Work Potential of Energy
Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic and Potential Energy
8-2 Reversible Work and Irreversibility
8-3 Second-Law Efficiency, ηII
8-4 Exergy Change of a System
Exergy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System) Exergy
Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy
8-5 Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass
Exergy Transfer by Heat Transfer, Q
Exergy Transfer by Work, W
Exergy Transfer by Mass, m
8-6 The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy Destruction
Exergy Destruction
8-7 Exergy Balance: Closed Systems
8-8 Exergy Balance: Control Volumes
Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems
Reversible Work, W rev
Second-Law Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices, ηII
Topics of Special Interest: Second-Law Aspects of Daily Life
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 9
Gas Power Cycles
9-1 Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles
9-2 The Carnot Cycle and Its Value in Engineering
9-3 Air-Standard Assumptions
9-4 An Overview of Reciprocating Engines
9-5 Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines
9-6 Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines
9-7 Stirling and Ericsson Cycles
9-8 Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine Engines
Development of Gas Turbines
Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized Ones
9-9 The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration
9-10 The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration
9-11 Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles
Modifications to Turbojet Engines
9-12 Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power Cycles
Topics of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving Sensibly
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 10
Vapor and Combined Power Cycles
10-1 The Carnot Vapor Cycle
10-2 Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power Cycles
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle
10-3 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from Idealized Ones
10-4 How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle?
Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers T low,av)
Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh,av)
Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh,av)
10-5 The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle
10-6 The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle
Open Feedwater Heaters
Closed Feedwater Heaters
10-7 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles
10-8 Cogeneration
10-9 Combined Gas–Vapor Power Cycles
Topics of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 11
Refrigeration Cycles
11-1 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
11-2 The Reversed Carnot Cycle
11-3 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle
11-4 Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle
11-5 Selecting the Right Refrigerant
11-6 Heat Pump Systems
11-7 Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems
Cascade Refrigeration Systems
Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems
Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor
Liquefaction of Gases
11-8 Gas Refrigeration Cycles
11-9 Absorption Refrigeration Systems
Topics of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation and Refrigeration
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 12
Thermodynamic Property Relations
12-1 A Little Math—Partial Derivatives and Associated Relations
Partial Differentials
Partial Differential Relations
12-2 The Maxwell Relations
12-3 The Clapeyron Equation
12-4 General Relations for du, dh, ds, Cv, and Cp
Internal Energy Changes
Enthalpy Changes
Entropy Changes
Specific Heats Cv and Cp
12-5 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient
12-6 The Δh, Δu, and Δs of Real Gases
Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases
Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases
Entropy Changes of Real Gases
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 13
Gas Mixtures
13-1 Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole Fractions
13-2 P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases
Ideal-Gas Mixtures
Real-Gas Mixtures
13-3 Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases
Ideal-Gas Mixtures
Real-Gas Mixtures
Topics of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the Separation Work of
Ideal Gas Mixtures and Ideal Solutions
Minimum Work of Separation of Mixtures
Reversible Mixing Processes
Second-Law Efficiency
Special-Case: Separation of a Two-Component Mixture
An Application: Desalination Processes
Chapter 14
Gas–Vapor Mixtures and Air-Conditioning
14-1 Dry and Atmospheric Air
14-2 Specific and Relative Humidity of Air
14-3 Dew-Point Temperature
14-4 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures
14-5 The Psychrometric Chart
14-6 Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning
14-7 Air-Conditioning Processes
Simple Heating and Cooling (w = constant)
Heating with Humidification
Cooling with Dehumidification
Evaporative Cooling
Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams
Wet Cooling Towers
SummaryReferences and Suggested Reading
Chapter 15
Chemical Reactions
15-1 Fuels and Combustion
15-2 Theoretical and Actual Combustion Processes
15-3 Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion
15-4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems
Steady-Flow Systems
Closed Systems
15-5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature
15-6 Entropy Change of Reacting Systems
15-7 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting systems
Topics of Special Interest: Fuel Cells
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 16
Chemical and Phase Equilibrium
16-1 Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium
16-2 The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas Mixtures
16-3 Some Remarks about the KP of Ideal-Gas Mixtures
16-4 Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous Reactions
16-5 Variation of KP with Temperature
16-6 Phase Equilibrium
Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System
The Phase Rule
Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System
References and Suggested Reading
Chapter 17
Compressible Flow
17-1 Stagnation Properties
17-2 Speed of Sound and Mach Number
17-3 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area
Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases
17-4 Isentropic Flow through Nozzles
Converging Nozzles
Converging–Diverging Nozzles
17-5 Shock Waves and Expansion
Normal Shocks
Oblique Shocks
Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves
17-6 Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow)
Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow
Choked Rayleigh Flow
17-7 Steam Nozzles
References and Suggested Reading
Appendix 1
Property Tables and Charts (SI Units)
Table A-1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties
Table A-2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases
Table A-3 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods
Table A-4 Saturated water—Temperature table
Table A-5 Saturated water—Pressure table
Table A-6 Superheated water
Table A-7 Compressed liquid water

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