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thermodynamics an engineering approach [cengel - boles] --->SEED!, ENJOY, SEED!!

Introduction and Basic Concepts

1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy

Application Areas of Thermodynamics

1-2 Importance of Dimensions and Units

Some SI and English Units

Dimensional Homogeneity

Unity Conversion Ratios

1-3 Systems and Control Volumes

1-4 Properties of a System

Continuum

1-5 Density and Specific Gravity

1-6 State and Equilibrium

The State Postulate

1-7 Processes and Cycles

The Steady-Flow Process

1-8 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Temperature Scales

The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)

1-9 Pressure

Variation of Pressure with Depth

1-10 The Manometer

Other Pressure Measurement Devices

1-11 The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure

1-12 Problem-Solving Technique

Step 1: Problem Statement

Step 2: Schematic

Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations

Step 4: Physical Laws

Step 5: Properties

Step 6: Calculations

Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion

Engineering Software Packages

A Remark on Significant Digits

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 2

Energy Conversion and General Energy Analysis

2-1 Introduction

2-2 Forms of Energy

Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy

Mechanical Energy

More on Nuclear Energy

2-3 Energy Transfer by Heat

Historical Background on Heat

2-4 Energy Transfer by Work

Electrical Work

2-5 Mechanical Forms of Work

Shaft Work

Spring Work

Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars

Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film

Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body

Nonmechanical Forms of Work

2-6 The First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy Balance

Energy Change of a System, ΔEsystem

Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout

2-7 Energy Conversion Efficiencies

2-8 Energy and Environment

Ozone and Smog

Acid Rain

The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change

Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 3

Properties of Pure Substances

3-1 Pure Substance

3-2 Phases of a Pure Substance

3-3 Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances

Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid

Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor

Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure

Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence

3-4 Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes

1 The T-v Diagram

2 The P-v Diagram

Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase

3 The P-T Diagram

The P-v-T Surface

3-5 Property Tables

Enthalpy—A Combination Property

1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States

1b Saturated Liquid–Vapor Mixture

2 Superheated Vapor

3 Compressed Liquid

Reference State and Reference Values

3-6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State

Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas?

3-7 Compressibility Factor—A Measure of Deviation from Ideal-Gas

Behavior

3-8 Other Equations of State

Van der Waals Equation of State

Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State

Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State

Virial Equation of State

Topic of Special Interest

Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 4

Energy Analysis of Closed Systems

4-1 Moving Boundary Work

Polytropic Process

4-2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems

4-3 Specific Heats

4-4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases

Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases

4-5 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Solids and Liquids

Internal Energy Changes

Enthalpy Changes

Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 5

Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes

5-1 Conservation of Mass

Mass and Volume Flow Rates

Conservation of Mass Principle

Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes

Special Case: Incompressible Flow

5-2 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid

Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid

Energy Transport by Mass

5-3 Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems

Energy Balance

5-4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices

1 Nozzles and Diffusers

2 Turbines and Compressors

3 Throttling Valves

4a Mixing Chambers

4b Heat Exchangers

5 Pipe and Duct Flow

5-5 Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow Processes

Mass Balance

Energy Balance

Topic of Special Interest: General Energy Equation

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 6

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

6-1 Introduction to the Second Law

6-2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs

6-3 Heat Engines

Thermal Efficiency

Can We Save Qout ?

The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin–Planck Statement

6-5 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

Coefficient of Performance

Heat Pumps

The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement

Equivalence of the Two Statements

6-6 Perpetual-Motion Machines

6-7 Reversible and Irreversible Processes

Irreversibilities

Internally and Externally Reversible Processes

6-8 The Carnot Cycle

The Reversed Carnot Cycle

6-9 The Carnot Principles

6-10 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

6-11 The Carnot Heat Engine

The Quality of Energy

Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life

6-12 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump

Topics of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 7

Entropy

7-1 Entropy

A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer

Processes

7-2 The Increase of Entropy Principle

Some Remarks about Entropy

7-3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances

7-4 Isentropic Processes

7-5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy

7-6 What Is Entropy?

Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life

7-7 The T ds Relations

7-8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids

7-9 The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases

Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis)

Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis)

Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases

Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis)

Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis)

Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume

7-10 Reversible Steady-Flow Work

Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least

Work when the Process Is Reversible

7-11 Minimizing the Compressor Work

Multistage Compression with Intercooling

7-12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow Devices

Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines

Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps

Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles

7-13 Entropy Balance

Entropy Change of a System, ΔS system

Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout

1 Heat Transfer

2 Mass Flow

Entropy Generation, Sgen

Closed Systems

Control Volumes

Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat Transfer Process

Topics of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of Compressed Air

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 8

Exergy: A Measure of Work Potential

8-1 Exergy: Work Potential of Energy

Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic and Potential Energy

8-2 Reversible Work and Irreversibility

8-3 Second-Law Efficiency, ηII

8-4 Exergy Change of a System

Exergy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System) Exergy

Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy

8-5 Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass

Exergy Transfer by Heat Transfer, Q

Exergy Transfer by Work, W

Exergy Transfer by Mass, m

8-6 The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy Destruction

Exergy Destruction

8-7 Exergy Balance: Closed Systems

8-8 Exergy Balance: Control Volumes

Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems

Reversible Work, W rev

Second-Law Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices, ηII

Topics of Special Interest: Second-Law Aspects of Daily Life

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 9

Gas Power Cycles

9-1 Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles

9-2 The Carnot Cycle and Its Value in Engineering

9-3 Air-Standard Assumptions

9-4 An Overview of Reciprocating Engines

9-5 Otto Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines

9-6 Diesel Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines

9-7 Stirling and Ericsson Cycles

9-8 Brayton Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine Engines

Development of Gas Turbines

Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized Ones

9-9 The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration

9-10 The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration

9-11 Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles

Modifications to Turbojet Engines

9-12 Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power Cycles

Topics of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by Driving Sensibly

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 10

Vapor and Combined Power Cycles

10-1 The Carnot Vapor Cycle

10-2 Rankine Cycle: The Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power Cycles

Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle

10-3 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles from Idealized Ones

10-4 How Can We Increase the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle?

Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers T low,av)

Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases Thigh,av)

Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh,av)

10-5 The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

10-6 The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Open Feedwater Heaters

Closed Feedwater Heaters

10-7 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles

10-8 Cogeneration

10-9 Combined Gas–Vapor Power Cycles

Topics of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 11

Refrigeration Cycles

11-1 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

11-2 The Reversed Carnot Cycle

11-3 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

11-4 Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle

11-5 Selecting the Right Refrigerant

11-6 Heat Pump Systems

11-7 Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems

Cascade Refrigeration Systems

Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems

Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single Compressor

Liquefaction of Gases

11-8 Gas Refrigeration Cycles

11-9 Absorption Refrigeration Systems

Topics of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation and Refrigeration

Systems

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 12

Thermodynamic Property Relations

12-1 A Little Math—Partial Derivatives and Associated Relations

Partial Differentials

Partial Differential Relations

12-2 The Maxwell Relations

12-3 The Clapeyron Equation

12-4 General Relations for du, dh, ds, Cv, and Cp

Internal Energy Changes

Enthalpy Changes

Entropy Changes

Specific Heats Cv and Cp

12-5 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient

12-6 The Δh, Δu, and Δs of Real Gases

Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases

Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases

Entropy Changes of Real Gases

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 13

Gas Mixtures

13-1 Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole Fractions

13-2 P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases

Ideal-Gas Mixtures

Real-Gas Mixtures

13-3 Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real Gases

Ideal-Gas Mixtures

Real-Gas Mixtures

Topics of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and the Separation Work of

Mixtures

Ideal Gas Mixtures and Ideal Solutions

Minimum Work of Separation of Mixtures

Reversible Mixing Processes

Second-Law Efficiency

Special-Case: Separation of a Two-Component Mixture

An Application: Desalination Processes

Chapter 14

Gas–Vapor Mixtures and Air-Conditioning

14-1 Dry and Atmospheric Air

14-2 Specific and Relative Humidity of Air

14-3 Dew-Point Temperature

14-4 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

14-5 The Psychrometric Chart

14-6 Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning

14-7 Air-Conditioning Processes

Simple Heating and Cooling (w = constant)

Heating with Humidification

Cooling with Dehumidification

Evaporative Cooling

Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams

Wet Cooling Towers

SummaryReferences and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 15

Chemical Reactions

15-1 Fuels and Combustion

15-2 Theoretical and Actual Combustion Processes

15-3 Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of Combustion

15-4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems

Steady-Flow Systems

Closed Systems

15-5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature

15-6 Entropy Change of Reacting Systems

15-7 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting systems

Topics of Special Interest: Fuel Cells

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 16

Chemical and Phase Equilibrium

16-1 Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium

16-2 The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas Mixtures

16-3 Some Remarks about the KP of Ideal-Gas Mixtures

16-4 Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous Reactions

16-5 Variation of KP with Temperature

16-6 Phase Equilibrium

Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System

The Phase Rule

Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Chapter 17

Compressible Flow

17-1 Stagnation Properties

17-2 Speed of Sound and Mach Number

17-3 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

17-4 Isentropic Flow through Nozzles

Converging Nozzles

Converging–Diverging Nozzles

17-5 Shock Waves and Expansion

Normal Shocks

Oblique Shocks

Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves

17-6 Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow)

Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow

Choked Rayleigh Flow

17-7 Steam Nozzles

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

Appendix 1

Property Tables and Charts (SI Units)

Table A-1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Table A-2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases

Table A-3 Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods

Table A-4 Saturated water—Temperature table

Table A-5 Saturated water—Pressure table

Table A-6 Superheated water

Table A-7 Compressed liquid water

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