The functional anatomy of the human body as revealed by gross and microscopic examination.
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Lecture 1 - Introduction and Background for General Human Anatomy
In this lecture, Katie Brakora, the head GSI, introduces the course and the required texts and discusses strategies for success in studying human anatomy. She encourages students to take a systemic view of human anatomy, understanding systems in whole and in part, rather than focusing on memorizing terms. After this introduction, Brakora discusses the attributes of the human brain using a preserved sample. Then, Brakora surveys the history of anatomy, starting with Aristotle's investigations, and walks through the contributions of Galen, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Vesalius before concluding by describing the impact of Henry Gray's publication of Gray's Anatomy.
Lecture 2 - The Human Brain and Muscular System
Professor Diamond begins this lecture with her famous discussion of the human brain, demonstrating her favorite subject with a preserved sample. She then launches into a discussion of the muscular system, starting with its general functions: movement, support, heat generation, facial expression, and protection. She discusses nomenclature for muscles and how these are impacted by the number of muscle heads, the muscle length, muscle location, and attachments. Professor Diamond next talks about the functions of the muscle and their functional types: flexors, extensors, adductors, abductors, supinators, and pronators. She then explains how to differentiate muscle origin and insertion, and she applies this to several muscles in the head, describing the origin, insertion, and action for each.
Lecture 3 - Muscular System II
Professor Diamond continues her discussion of human muscle systems, addressing muscles of the trunk and upper extremity. Professor Diamond begins by discussing the trapezius, its origin and insertion, and how this relates to its function as an adductor. She encourages students to engage in self-study in order to grasp muscular form and function. She then explains the origin and insertion of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and deltoid muscles and how this relates logically to their function within the body. She closes by beginning to discuss the muscles of the arm, describing the four muscles of the rotator cuff and the bicep brachii muscles.
Lecture 4 - Muscular System III
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her discussion of human muscle systems by describing the muscles of the arm and forearm as well as the abdominal muscles. She begins by describing the origin and insertion of the tricep and brachioradialis. She discusses forearm muscles generally, grouping them into flexors and extensors. Next, Professor Diamond describes four abdominal muscles, relating their names to the ways in which they cross the abdomen. She describes how working out increases the tendinous inscriptions between the abdominal muscles and also reveals how common inguinal hernias occur. Professor Diamond notes that the abdominal muscles have many functions, including support, protecting viscera, flexing vertebral column, breathing, vomiting, laughing, coughing and sneezing, and defecating. She concludes by discussing the muscles of the pelvic floor and the muscles of the hip, including the gluteal muscles.
Lecture 5 - Muscular System IV
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her description of the muscular system, describing the gluteal muscles and muscles of the thigh and leg. She also discusses muscle histology. She begins with the gluteal muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus. She continues by describing muscles of the thigh, including the quadriceps femoris and the hamstring muscles. She describes the anatomy of the femoral triangle, the major nerve, artery, vein, and lymphatics that it contains. She then moves on to the anterior and posterior muscles of the leg. She concludes by discussing the histology of muscles, starting with smooth or visceral muscles and cardiac muscle. She discusses smooth muscles cells in depth, including their role in blood vessels and the iris, and then describes the tubular cells of cardiac muscle.
Lecture 6 - Muscular System V; Digestive System I
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her description of the histology of muscles and then launches her discussion of the digestive system. She discusses the histology of skeletal muscles and walks through the process of muscle contraction. Professor Diamond then transitions to the digestive system. She begins with an overview of the functions of the digestive system, including preparing food for digestion, digesting food, absorption, and preparing waste for elimination. She describes the various components of the digestive system, including the mouth, esophagus, small and large intestine, and rectum. With this foundation, Professor Diamond begins to review each component of the digestive system in detail, starting with the mouth and the teeth. She illustrates the various components of a tooth, including the crown, neck, root, enamel, dentine, pulp cavity, and root canal and touches on how this relates to tooth loss and cavities. She concludes with a brief discussion of the tongue.
Lecture 7 - Digestive System II
In this lecture, Professor Diamond moves in depth into the digestive system, discussing the tongue, salivary glands, layers of the digestive track, esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. She discusses the components of the tongue, including the taste buds, and describes the tongue's function in mixing food with saliva and amylase enzymes, swallowing, and talking. Professor Diamond goes on to describe how saliva is generated and transmitted into the mouth. She transitions to a discussion of the layers in the digestive track, including mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. She discusses the peritoneal cavity and how the stomach and intestine are positioned in this space. Next, she describes the esophagus and how it transitions from skeletal muscle to smooth muscle as it goes towards the stomach. She moves on to discuss the stomach itself, its position, and how the pyloric valve regulates the rate at which food is passed to the intestine. She describes the stomach's functions: mixing food with digestive enzymes, beginning protein digestion, and passing the chime (food and enzyme combination) to the intestine. She concludes with a description of how the stomach's gastric glands facilitate digestion by secreting mucus, hydrochloric acid, and pepsinogin, resulting in the creation of pepsin, which digests proteins.
Lecture 8 - Digestive System III; Liver I
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her review of the digestive system by describing the small intestine. She begins by describing the start and end points of the small intestine, the pyloric sphincter and the ileocecal valve, and demonstrating the 20 foot length. She discusses the sections of the small intestine including duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and how villi increase surface area. She discusses several unique characteristics of the small intestine, including the presence of Brunner's glands in the duodenum, which neutralize low pH chyme from the stomach, and Peyer's patches in the ileum, which serve as a local defense mechanism. Professor Diamond then moves on to describe the sections of the large intestine: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. She discusses the major functions of the large intestine, such as absorbing water. She highlights the longitudinal muscle structure of the large intestine and the unique distribution of adipose tissue. She then describes the rectum and its structure, and notes how swollen veins in the rectum result in hemorrhoids.
Lecture 9 - Liver II
In this lecture, Professor Diamond begins discussing the liver. She notes that the liver is the largest gland in the body and that all the cells in the liver are different. She describes the liver's location below the diaphragm and the liver's four lobe structure. After introducing the liver, Professor Diamond conducts a course review, covering topics from her previous lectures on the muscular system and digestive system.
Lecture 10 - Digestive System IV; Hematology I
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the liver before moving on to the pancreas and hematology. She first describes how the liver is composed of cells called hepatocytes organized into lobules with triads, which each contain a branch of the hepatic artery, a branch of the hepatic portal vein, and a bile duct. She then reviews the functions of the liver, including supporting digestion through bile production, developing blood coagulants, and detoxifying nitrogenous wastes. Professor Diamond touches on disorders of the liver, such as cirrhosis caused by overconsumption of alcohol and elevated urea levels resulting from Hepatitis C. She then introduces the pancreas, the second largest gland. After describing the pancreas's function as an endocrine and exocrine gland, she describes various disorders, including diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and pancreatic cancer. Professor Diamond concludes with a discussion of blood, describing its cellular and fluid components and the production of red blood cells in bone marrow.
Lecture 11 - Hematology II
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her discussion of hematology by describing the two major blood cell types, erythrocytes and leukocytes. She begins by reviewing erythrocytes (red blood corpuscles or RBCs) and their characteristics. She discusses differences between RBC counts in men and women and factors like exercise that impact RBC counts. She then contrasts the properties of erythrocytes with those of leukocytes, noting that leukocytes are variable in size, act as a defense mechanism, and vary in numbers depending on the body's defense needs. She describes how differentiate between different leukocyte types based on the presence of granules in the cytoplasm and the type of nucleus. Professor Diamond surveys the characteristics of leukocyte types, starting with lymphocytes. She discusses the specific cases of B-cells and T-cells and the role that these play in immune response and how T4 cell levels are used in AIDS diagnostic tests. She notes the different T-cell types, including helper, killer, and suppressor T-cells before transitioning to a discussion of monocytes, phagocytic cells that respond to infection. She then discusses granular leukocytes or polymorphs. She starts with the neutrophil, which are the most common white blood cell and also phagocytic. She then discusses acidophyls and their role in allergic reactions, asthma and hay fever. She briefly touches on basophils, and she concludes by mentioning thrombocytes, their function in blood clotting, and their parent cells, megakaryocytes.
Lecture 12 - Cardiology I
In this lecture, Professor Diamond begins an in depth discussion of the cardiac system. She notes how the unique structure of cardiac muscle as intercalated disks enables the transfer of electrical impulses through the cardiac muscle. Professor Diamond describes the differences between systemic and pulmonary circulation. She introduces the components of the heart, discussing the right and left atrium and right and left ventricle, and describes how pulmonary and systemic circulation flow through these chambers. She then reviews the size and location of the heart, before discussing its structure. She begins her review of the heart's structure by describing the pericardium, or coverings of the heart, and how they function, anchoring the heart and reducing friction. She then describes the inner structure of the heart in detail, describing specific characteristics of each atrium and ventricle.
Lecture 13 - Cardiology II
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her conversation on the heart, reviewing its chambers and discussing heart valves, heart sounds, cardiac cycle, pathways of the blood through the heart, conduction mechanism, and nerve supply. She first describes distinguishing characteristics of the ventricles, such as the thicker walls of the left ventricle. She also details the atrioventricular (AV) and semilunar (SL) valves that control blood flow within the heart and touches on valve disorders and challenges with current valve replacement technologies. Professor Diamond then relates sounds of the heart to valves, noting that the stronger lub sound is caused by the AV valves and the dub sound by the SL valves. She describes how the valves open and close alternately during the cardiac cycle and discusses how blood flows from the vena cava into the heart, through the lungs, back to the heart, and into the aorta. Professor Diamond next details the conduction mechanism for the heart. She concludes by reviewing the autonomic nervous system and its sympathetic and parasympathetic components, and discussing how these control the nodes that determine the heart's pace.
Lecture 14 - Blood - Vascular System I
Professor Diamond builds on previously introduced material about the cardiac system and introduces angiology, the study of the blood vessels. To begin, she draws a diagram of the composition of the circulatory system, showing how the arteries, arterioles, capillaries differ from veins and veinules. She also explains what blood vessels are made of and their specific functions. She then details elastic arteries (those more limited in number and closer to the heart), giving the histology of these arteries with examples including the ascending aorta and the coronary arteries. She describes the relationship between these phenomena and heart attacks and explains how the blockage of coronary arteries occurs and what is done to treat the condition. The second set of arteries covered is the muscular arteries, and Professor Diamond again discusses histology before tying this in with the illness of strokes. The lecture concludes with a slideshow of a diagram of the cardiovascular system and various photos of arteries.
Lecture 15 - Vascular System II; Lymphatic System
Professor Diamond continues the second lecture on the vascular system beginning with a closer look at the middle cerebral artery, its composition and function, as well as its relationship with other areas of the brain. The second set of the more distinctive arteries are the vertebral arteries, which supply about 25% of the brain's blood supply. After covering how the vascular system relates to the spinal cord, Professor Diamond moves onto the lymphatic system, dissecting its constituents which include: lymphatic tissue (spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, and tonsils), lymphatic vessels, and lymph. She discusses each of the lymphatic tissues in detail, including its location, composition and function. The lecture concludes with photos of each of the lymphatic tissues.
Lecture 16 - Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph; Respiratory System I
Professor Diamond's review of the lymphatic system continues with the lymphatic vessels and lymph. Professor Diamond compares lymphatic vessels to the cardiovascular system and notes the differences in structure. Next, Professor Diamond defines lymph (tissue fluid) and its composition and function. The movement of lymph is also discussed, and again, this is compared to the movement of blood through the body. The absorption of fat by the venous system is discussed in detail to show how lymphatic vessels function within the body. Then, Professor Diamond moves on to the respiratory system, which falls under the science of autorhinolarynology (ear, nose and throat). She separates respiration into external and internal functions, and lists the constituents of the respiratory system. Starting with the nose, Professor Diamond explains the constituents of the respiratory system, including their location, function and purpose within the system. The lecture concludes with a photo slideshow of the lymphatic and venous systems as well as specific tissues and organs related to the respiratory system (including the nasal skeletal structure).
Lecture 17 - Respiratory System II
Professor Diamond begins this lecture with the structure and composition of the nose, paying particular attention to the roof, septum and the lateral wall. Then she analyses the tear ducts and how these ducts relate to nasal ducts before turning to a closer look at the pharynx and larynx, and their locations and composition. She also explains how vocal cords function and how that changes in males during puberty, and she describes the motion and function of the esophagus and air pathways during eating. The she turns to the trachea and its composition and function, and she briefly explains what to do when someone is choking and discusses a procedure called the tracheotomy. Continuing down the air pathway, Professor Diamond concludes the lecture by covering the bronchia, bronchioles, terminal bronchiole, and the respiratory bronchiole, and notes what happens in these pathways for people with asthma.
Lecture 18 - Respiratory System III, Nervous System I
In this lecture, Professor Diamond begins with a review of the respiratory bronchile. She then continues to discuss the structure of the lungs including the trachea, hilum, primary bronchi, pulmonary arteries and veins, nerves, alveoli and diaphragm, as well as the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. After building this foundation she describes the process of innervation and the firing of the phrenic nerve before moving into an introduction of the nervous system. Starting with an introduction of the three basic divisions of the nervous system, the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the automatic nervous system, Professor Diamond then discusses neurohistology starting with nerve cells and glial cells before describing the basic structure of the nerve cell including the cell body or soma, the nucleus, mitochondria, golgi, nissl substance, and neurotubules. Next, she explains nerve branches and the functions of the axon, axon hillock, and myelin. At the end of the lecture, she shows pictures of the various structures involved in respiration.
Lecture 19 - Nervous System II
Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the nervous system beginning with processes - extensions of the soma. She describes axons, dendrites and the types of synapses: axodendritic, axoaxomic, axosomatic, and dendrodentritic. She then describes how neurotransmitters travel from the presynaptic terminal of an axon to the postsynaptic terminal of a dendrite in an axodendritic synapse. Professor Diamond continues with neuron classifications by size, discussing the varied sizes of granule cells and anterior horn cells, followed by classifications by shape and structure, discussing unipolar, bipolar, multiple polar, and pseudounipolar cells. Next, she discusses the definitions of nerves including cranial and spinal nerves, tracts, ganglia and dorsal root ganglia, and nuclei, while pointing out their locations in respect to the central nervous system. She transitions into a conversation on the types of neuroglia and details the function of astrocytes, a type of macroglia. After describing how astrocytes enable MRI scans, she begins a discussion on radial glia, pyramidal cells, and their ties to schizophrenia. She concludes by showing images of the various cells discussed throughout the lecture.
Lecture 20 - Nervous System III
Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the nervous system beginning with a discussion of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, saltatory conduction from the nodes of ranvier, and the similarity of the function of microglia to monocytes. She moves on to describe the development of the neural tube by drawing a cross-section of the neural tube and depicting the changes it undergoes, forming the ventricles of the brain, which are lined with ependymal cells, and developing pia. Next, Professor Diamond describes the divisions of the neural tube from the proencephalon (forebrain) to the telencephalon and diencephalon, and the rhombencephalon (hindbrain) to the metencephalon and myelencephalon, while noting that the mescencephalon (midbrain) does not divide. She continues with a conversation on the developments of the derivatives of the neural tube including the medulla oblongata, cerebellum, pons, corpora quadrigemina, and the thalamus and hypothalamus, as well as their functions. She concludes with images of the cells discussed as well as a description of how synapses grow stronger with use.
Lecture 21 - Nervous System IV
Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the nervous system, finishing her discussion of the derivatives of the neural tube. She begins by discussing the lamina terminalis and the four ventricles, relating each to the source of their derivation and the areas of the brain in which they are found. Next, she continues her discussion of diencephalon from the last lecture and describes the roles of the thalamus and hypothalamus. After describing the hypothalamus's function as the control center of the automatic nervous system, Professor Diamond discusses the derivatives of the telencephalon - the basal ganglia and the cerebral hemisphere. She draws a diagram of how the basal ganglia is related to the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, the putemen, the globus pallidus, and the subthalamus. Next, she discusses the reasons for the existence of gyrus and sulcus in the cerebral hemisphere before diagramming the lateral fissure, central sulcus, frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes, as well as the insula. She concludes with slides showing myelinated fibers, synapses, and other topics discussed throughout this lecture.
Lecture 22 - Nervous System V
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the nervous system and begins by reviewing the telencephalon before transitioning into a discussion of the six layers of the neocortex. She discusses the hippocampal-dentate complex, the archicortex, and the temporal lobe, which contains the hippocampus and pyramidal cells along with the fimbrea, fornix, and mammilary bodies. To enhance students' understanding of the neural tube, Professor Diamond explains the twelve pairs of cranial nerves: the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, cochliar and vestibular, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves. She relates each of these nerves to their innervations, describing aspects of the eye muscle, including the lateral rectus and how it can cause medial strabismus, the taste buds, the submaxillary, submandibular and parotid salivary glands as well as how parotid salivary glands are affected by mumps, somatic and visceral motor functions, the foramen magnum, and the tongue muscles. She concludes with a description of the 31 spinal nerves and their locations in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal parts of the spine before showing how they are protected by the three layers that form the meneges: the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.
Lecture 23 - Nervous System VI
In this lecture, Professor Diamond conducts a review of previous lectures including areas of the respiratory system, nervous system, vascular system, as well as hematology and cardiology. Her review takes the format of a quiz as she goes through slides and asks students to identify parts of the slides as well as answer multiple choice and true or false questions. Questions involve topics such as the hyelin cartilage, the trachea, lungs, bronchi, and how emphysema affect the alveoli and breathing, as well as astrocytes, the types of synapses, ventricles of the brain, ependymal cells, the hypothalymus, superior and inferior colliculi, the substantia nigra and its role in Parkinson's disease, hippocampus, and ganglia. She continues with questions regarding the testicular and ovarian arteries, the carotid and middle cerebral arteries, the liver, the vertebral artery, atherosclerosis, the function of an angioplasty, the function of an endarterectomy, tissue identification including pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium, lymph nodes, and normoblasts and reticulocytes in the blood. She concludes by asking identification questions regarding the nerve cells, oligodendrocytes, myelin, nissl substance, dendrites, the semilunar valves of the heart, as well as nasal and tonsil functions.
Lecture 24 - Nervous System VII
Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the nervous system with a diagram of a cross section of a developing spinal cord in which she highlights the ependyma, the mantle layer, the neuronal soma, and the marginal layer. She compares the developing cord to an adult cord and discusses the ventricles, the posterior and anterior horn, and the lateral horn in the thoracic cord. After relating these to the sympathetic division of the automatic nervous system and describing funiculi and fasciculi, she provides an example of a spinal nerve. Her explanation includes the process of sensory fibers traveling via dorsal root ganglia, interneurons and multipolar neurons, as well as how the polio virus attacks anterior horn cells. She continues by discussing the development of cauda equina, detailing how nerve fibers move from the cord level to the vertebral level through the intervertebral foramen, then building to add the menenges while explaining the importance of the filum terminali. Next, she touches on the dermatome and describes how T2 causes a radiation of pain of the medial side of the left arm during a heart attack before returning to the cord to discussing ascending tracts in the cord and three neurons found in dorsal root ganglia, the posterior horn or medulla, and the thalamus, which carry sensory information to the brain. She provides an example using pain and temperature sensations before showing slides illustrating the concepts discussed throughout lecture as well as pictures of brain-degenerative diseases.
Lecture 25 - Nervous System VIII
Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the nervous system and begins by revisiting her discussion of the ascending path. She notes the presence of substantia gelatinosa in the area of the second neuron and describes the concept of homunculus, which is the upside-down representation of the body in the brain, and notes that this does not occur in the face for reasons unknown to neurologists. Professor Diamond then begins describing the descending paths of the spinal cord, the corticospinal tract and the corticobulbar tract. She begins at the telencephalon level, describing how the axons of pyramidal cells feed their way through various structures including the ventricles, putamen, lentiform nucleus, globus pallidus, and the corona radiata. She continues to the mesencephalon level, describing the superior colliculi, aqueducts, basal plates, and cerebral pinduncles before moving to the metencephalon to describe pyramids and ending at the myelencephalon to describe the decussation of pyramids. Professor Diamond concludes her explanation of the pathways of corticoaxons in the spinal cord, describing the lateral funiculus, lateral corticospinal tract, and anterior corticospinal tract, as well as how corticoaxons travel to the anterior horn cell. She applies this discussion to upper and lower motor neurons and discusses the symptoms of a upper motor neuron lesions noting the loss of the cremasteric reflex and a positive Babinski reflex, and the symptoms of a lower motor neuron lesion.
Lecture 26 - Nervous System IX
Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the nervous system with an introduction of the cerebral hemisphere and it is divided into lobes with specific functions. She uses Brodmann's numbering system as she draws the location of lobes and areas of the brain, including the precentral, postcentral, and premotor gyri, the central sulcus, motor cortex, frontal eye fields, and prefrontal lobe. She details the functions of the prefrontal lobe, noting that it is responsible for working memory, judgment, personality, and abstract reasoning before describing how a frontal lobotomy was used to treat extreme anxiety. She continues to discuss the medial orbital cortex and the amygdala in the temporal lobe, describing how it relates to fear. Professor Diamond further develops her explanation of the cerebral hemisphere, drawing the positions of the parietal lobe, parietal occipital fissure, occipital lobe, intraparietal sulcus, superior and inferior parietal lobes, and the supramarginal, angular, and postcentral gyri. She transitions to a discussion on the sensory functions of the postcentral gyrus including touch and pressure, kinesthetic sense, and taste. She concludes with a midline frontal view of the cerebral hemisphere and showing slides illustrating the concepts introduced in lecture.
Lecture 27 - Nervous System X
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues with the cerebral lobes and covers a variety of illnesses that occur in the cerebral lobes including neglect syndrome, Wernicke's Syndrome, and hallucinations. She also spends time on the temporal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the insula, its components and how it affects the body. Then she moves on to the composition, function and location of the eye and its constituents. She briefly covers the development and the visual pathway of the eye, showing how vision is transferred and translated to the brain. Then she focuses on specific components of the eye including the optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic tract and the coats of the eye (uvea, sclera, cornea). Finally Professor Diamond diagrams the detailed structure of the lens and its location, composition, and function. She draws the visual pathway noting each of the anatomical areas that plays a role. In conclusion she explains what happens when someone has glaucoma and what is done to cure it.
Lecture 28 - Nervous System XI
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues a review of the nervous system and covers the eye and the ear. She begins by diagramming the eye, and she differentiates between the eye itself and its accessory structures, including the bony orbit, the eyebrow and eyelids, and the conjunctiva. She describes how tarsal glands in the eyes function. Then, Professor Diamond moves on to the subject of the ear. She touches on the three divisions in the ear - outer, middle, and inner - and its equilibrium and auditory functions. She describes each division of the ear, starting with the outer. She illustrates the components of the outer ear, including the auricle, the external auditory meatus, and the glands responsible for wax production. In the middle ear, she describes the tympanic membrane and the ossicles (tiny bones), which help transmit sound, as well as the role of the Eustachian tube in equalizing pressure. In the inner ear, she discusses the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea, and she describes how the semicircular canals and vestibule function in establishing kinetic and static equilibrium.
Lecture 29 - Nervous System XII: Inner Ear; Urinary System I
In this lecture, Professor Diamond wraps up her discussion of the nervous system and moves on to the urinary system, beginning with the kidney. She concludes her discussion of the nervous system by describing the cochlea and diagramming its structure, and she indicates how cilia (hair cells) respond to and transmit information about vibrations in the fluid inside the cochlea. Professor Diamond then diagrams the constituents of the urinary systems: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. She describes the external structure and location of the kidney in detail and then illustrates the internal structure of the organ. She notes that the kidney is divided into the medulla and cortex, and explains that the fundamental structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. She discusses the structure of the nephron, including the Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus, and describes how this structure serves to filter substances from the blood at a remarkable rate.
Lecture 30 - Urinary System II; Endocrine System I
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues discussing the urinary system before moving on to introduce the basic structure and nomenclature for the endocrine system. Within the urinary system she covers renal tubules, hormonal action, accessory structures, collecting ducts, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra. She begins by showing the quantities of blood filtered and processed by the kidneys. She describes the filtration function of the renal tubules within the cortex of the kidney. She shows how collecting ducts lead to the ureter and discusses the action of the urinary bladder. Before moving on, she steps back in order to discuss how hormones like antidiuretic hormone (ADH) act on the urinary sytem. After this discussion of hormonal action, she returns to diagramming the structure of the ureter and urinary bladder. She describes how the variable thickness in the epithelial cells enables the bladder to change shape and how stretch receptors function. Moving forward from the bladder, she illustrates the urethra and its sections. Before closing, Professor Diamond begins her discussion of the endocrine system by discussing characteristics of the ductless glands in the endocrine system. At the end of the lecture, she shows slides illustrating components of the urinary system.
Lecture 31 - Endocrine System II
In this lecture, Professor Diamond explores the endocrine system in depth, covering the structure and function of the pineal gland, ovary, testes, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and pituitary gland. She first mentions the pineal gland and its regulation of the circadian rhythm. She briefly discusses the ovary and testes and their role in hormone production before moving on to discuss the thyroid. She discusses the shape, location, and structure of the thyroid and the role of the T3 hormone in determining metabolic rate and development of nervous system. She notes that the pituitary gland affects thyroid activity through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). She touches on disorders caused by thyroid overdevelopment and underdevelopment. She discusses the role of the parathyroid in regulating calcium levels. Professor Diamond then introduces the adrenal gland and discusses the hormones produced by the gland, including epinephrine and norepinephrine. Finally, she reviews the pituitary gland in greater depth, describing the effects that its hormones produce in the body before concluding by showing several slides of the major endocrine glands.
Lecture 32 - Endocrine System III
In this lecture, Professor Diamond finishes her discussion of the endocrine system. She begins with the adenohypophysis in the pituitary gland, and describes how the production of growth hormone promotes uptake of protein. She also introduces the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which acts on the adrenal cortex, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which acts on the ovaries in females and on the seminiferous tubules in males. She further describes luteinizing hormone (LH), which affects ovulation in females and testosterone production in males. She reviews an earlier discussion of thyroid stimulating hormone and then mentions prolactin, which promotes milk production in the mammary gland. Afterwards, Professor Diamond moves on to the next topic , the female reproductive system. She diagrams the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Professor Diamond then begins walking through each individual component of the female reproductive system, beginning with the ovaries. She discusses the process of ovulation and how follicles develop into eggs in the ovary. She follows the pathway of an egg through the fallopian tubes, and discusses normal and unusual occurrences during pregnancy.
Lecture 33 - Female Reproductive System
In this lecture, Professor Diamond reviews the previously covered material on the female reproductive system beginning with a detailed look at the uterus, its composition (in layers), size and function. She pays particular attention to the uterus wall, muscles and how it changes during the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle is also explained in terms of hormonal changes, ovulation and physical preparation for fertilization and pregnancy. Following she explains in detail the menstrual flow, amount of blood discharge on average, complications that would lead to the stop of menstrual flow, and what causes cramps. Leaving the uterus, she moves on to the vagina and vulva, noting their size, composition and function. She then discusses their importance in reproduction and how they each contribute during intercourse. She covers the erectile tissue present in the clitoris and in the nipples. Finally Professor Diamond concludes with the hormonal changes in the body during breastfeeding and how this can be used as a method of birth control. The final slideshow depicts photos of the uterus, vagina, breasts, focusing on detailed tissue structure.
Lecture 34 - Male Reproductive System I
In this lecture on the male reproductive system, Professor Diamond begins by covering the primary sex organ (the gonad or testis). She discusses its function in producing sperm and testosterone, location within the male body, and the reason it is enclosed in a separate pouch called the scrotum (temperature regulation by the eremasteric muscle). Then she talks about the source of sperm, structure of the testis, in particular, the lobules, seminiferous tubules and the formation of sperm (spermatogenesis), and how it is designed to carry out its function. Specific histology include: germinal epithelium, spermatogonium (the stem cell), spermatocytes and the construction and motion of the spermatozoa (sperm). After this she talks about the regeneration of sperm by the sustentacular, or sertoli, cells, how they create the testis-blood-barrier (also found in the brain), and how they regulate the amount of testosterone. On this note Professor Diamond reviews the role of testosterone during puberty and the physiological changes that occur during this time period. From here, Professor Diamond describes the duct system and how the sperm, once created, travel through the male body. The duct system is comprised of the vas deferens, ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, and the prostatic urethra. The lecture concludes with a slideshow of the various components of the male sex organ.
Lecture 35 - Male Reproductive System II; Integumentary System I
This penultimate lecture concludes the discussion of the male reproductive system. Here Professor Diamond introduces the sex glands, which include the seminal vesicles, prostate and the balbo urethra glades, detailing their location, functions and secretions. These secretions include acid phosphate from the prostate, which is used to detect prostate cancer. She then turns to the penis, diagramming its components, location of glands, purpose of circumcision, and finally its functions. She also talks about erection and ejaculation, as well as birth control methods including cutting the vas deferens (vasectomy). Professor Diamond then moves on to the integumentary system, the organ of skin, and also the largest organ in the body. Of particular interest is that hair and brain cells arise from the same embryonic stem cells. She covers in detail the constituents (skin, hair, nails, glands), function, and the structure of skin. She concludes with a slide of skin cells and notes that the next lecture will cover skin cancer.
Lecture 36 - Integumentary System II, Course Review
In this lecture, Professor Diamond continues her discussion of the integumentary system. She describes the layers, including the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. After illustrating the cellular structure of the skin, she describes various types of skin cancer, where they occur, and how severe they are. In this final lecture, Professor Diamond then conducts a review of the course content covered to date in an interactive quiz session with the class.