01 Romanian Rhapsody for orchestra, Op 11- No. 1 in A major.flac (Size: 266.88 MB) (Files: 16)
01 Romanian Rhapsody for orchestra, Op 11- No. 1 in A major.flac
02 Suite for orchestra No.2 in C major, Op.20- Movement 1.flac
03 Suite for orchestra No.2 in C major, Op.20- Movement 2.flac
04 Suite for orchestra No.2 in C major, Op.20- Movement 3.flac
05 Suite for orchestra No.2 in C major, Op.20- Movement 4.flac
06 Suite for orchestra No.2 in C major, Op.20- Movement 5.flac
07 Suite for orchestra No.2 in C major, Op.20- Movement 6.flac
08 Suite for orchestra-3 in D, Op 27 'Villageoise'- Movement 1.flac
09 Suite for orchestra-3 in D, Op 27 'Villageoise'- Movement 2.flac
10 Suite for orchestra-3 in D, Op 27 'Villageoise'- Movement 3.flac
11 Suite for orchestra-3 in D, Op 27 'Villageoise'- Movement 4.flac
12 Suite for orchestra-3 in D, Op 27 'Villageoise'- Movement 5.flac
1. Romanian Rhapsody No. l In A Major, Op. ll
5. Menuet Grave
8. Renouveau Champetre
9. Gamins En Plein Air
10. La Vielle Maison De L'enfance, Au Soleil Couchant
11. Riviere Sous La Lune
12. Danses Rustiques
Biography from Grove Music:
Enescu, George [Enesco, Georges]
(b Liveni Vîrnav [now George Enescu], nr Dorohoi, 19 Aug 1881; d Paris, 3/4 May 1955). Romanian composer, violinist, conductor and teacher. Enescu (also known by the French form of his name, Georges Enesco) was Romania’s greatest composer, the leading figure in Romanian musical life in the first half of the 20th century, and one of the best-known violinists of his generation.
Enescu came from a modest middle-class family (his father was an estate manager). He started to play the violin at the age of four, and began composing as soon as he learnt musical notation (aged five). In 1888 he entered the Konservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna. There he studied with Sigmund Bachrich and Joseph Hellmesberger jr (violin), Robert Fuchs (harmony), Joseph Hellmesberger sr (chamber music) and Ernst Ludwig (piano). He also learnt the organ and cello, frequented the Hofoper (for Wagner performances conducted by Hans Richter) and played Brahms’s works in the conservatory orchestra, in the composer’s presence. His first public performance, as a violinist, was at Sl?nic (north-eastern Romania) in 1889. Enescu graduated in 1893, then stayed for a year of further study in Fuchs’s composition class.
From 1895 Enescu continued his studies at the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied composition under Massenet (1895–6) and Fauré (1896–9); he also warmed particularly to his teacher of counterpoint and fugue, André Gédalge. Other teachers were less congenial: Ambroise Thomas and Théodore Dubois (harmony), Diémer (piano) and Marsick (violin – there was some supplementary teaching by José White, whom Enescu preferred). Fellow pupils and friends at the Conservatoire included Ravel, Schmitt, Koechlin, Roger-Ducasse, Casella, Cortot and Thibaud. Enescu’s main interest was composition; the first public performance of his works was an all-Enescu chamber concert, in Paris in 1897. His orchestral work, Poème roumain op.1, was conducted by Edouard Colonne in Paris in January 1898; two months later Enescu conducted it in Bucharest, and he was promptly hailed by the Romanian press as a figure of national importance.
After his graduation from the Conservatoire in 1899, Enescu began to lead the divided existence which would characterize most of his adult life: he was based in both France and Romania, and divided his energies between performance and composition. Paris was the main base for his activities as a violinist (and pianist); frequent partners included Cortot, Thibaud and Casals. He formed a trio with Casella and Louis Fournier in 1902, and the Enescu Quartet in 1904. Before World War I he toured several European countries as a violinist; he also conducted the Berlin SO and the Concertgebouw in the Netherlands in 1912. Summer months were usually devoted to composition in the Romanian countryside, but during this period he also became an active figure in the musical life of that country (where he enjoyed the special patronage of the royal family), and in 1912 he founded the Enescu Prize for Romanian composers. He stayed in his native land during World War I, forming a symphony orchestra in 1917; in 1921 he created the first national opera company in Romania, rehearsing and conducting its first production (Lohengrin, 31 December 1921).
For Enescu, the inter-war years were dominated by one great task; the completion of his own opera Oedipe. This was conceived in 1912, written in rough (two- or three-stave) draft in 1921, revised and orchestrated (1921–31) and finally performed (at the Paris Opéra) in 1936. The slowness of this whole process was caused partly by the punishing schedules of Enescu’s concert tours. From 1923 these included regular visits to the USA; it was there, in the 1920s, that Enescu was first persuaded to make a small number of recordings as a violinist. American orchestras also offered him frequent opportunities to conduct (in 1936 he was one of the candidates considered to replace Toscanini as permanent conductor of the New York Philharmonic). A performance by Enescu in San Francisco in 1925 inspired the young Yehudi Menuhin, who came to Europe and studied under him from 1927 onwards. Enescu was always reluctant to become a pedagogue, but those who were deeply influenced by his teaching – formal and informal – included Ferras, Gitlis, Grumiaux and Haendel. He gave masterclasses at the Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris, in 1928, and at Yvonne Astruc’s ‘Institut Instrumental’ (also in Paris) in 1938–9; after World War II he would devote more time to teaching, at the David Mannes School (New York), the Accademia Musicale Chigiana (Siena) and the summer courses at Brighton and Bryanston.
Enescu stayed in Romania during World War II, making several important recordings of his own works with his godson Dinu Lipatti. After the war the Communist Party gradually took control; Enescu went into exile in 1946. He was old, ill (with heart trouble, curvature of the spine and a hearing problem which affected intonation) and impoverished; he also had the burden of a mentally unstable wife (once a famous aristocratic beauty, Princess Maruca Cantacuzino, née Rosetti-Tescani), to whom he remained chivalrously devoted. For a few years he resumed his career as a violinist; several important recordings survive from this period, including the Bach solo sonatas and partitas. Apart from teaching, he gave more time now to conducting, especially on a series of visits to England (1947–53); but, as always, what he cared about most was composition. In July 1954 he suffered a severe stroke, causing partial paralysis. His last work, the Chamber Symphony, was completed with the help of his friend Marcel Mihalovici.
Enescu made a lasting impression on almost everyone who came into contact with him; this was both a musical and a personal phenomenon. His gifts included a prodigious memory: he knew much of the classical canon by heart, including every note of Wagner’s Ring, and most of the Bach-Gesellschaft’s edition of Bach’s complete works. As conductor, chamber player and teacher he also had a gift for communicating a kind of reverence for the music itself; he avoided showmanship, aiming at a self-effacing performance in which all attention would be focussed on the music, not the player or his technique. (His violin tone was warm and intimate, modelled on the cantabile of a human voice.) His humility towards the music of other composers was matched by modesty about his own works, and his career as a composer suffered from his dignified but damaging reluctance to engage in any form of self-promotion.
Enescu’s published output extends to only 33 opus numbers, though several of these are very large-scale works (the three symphonies and Oedipe). The demands of a busy career as a performer were not the only reason for this comparative paucity of finished output. Enescu was also an obsessive perfectionist: many of his published works were repeatedly redrafted before their first performances, and revised several times thereafter. Moreover, as recent research has made increasingly clear, the works which he did allow to be published were merely the tip of a huge submerged mass of manuscript work-in-progress (the bulk of which is held by the Enescu Museum, Bucharest). The leading authority on these manuscripts, Clemansa Firca, suggests that there may be ‘several hundred’ compositions in varying degrees of rough draft or near-completion. In some cases, too, the same thematic material would be re-worked in manuscript for decades before emerging in one of the published works.
Such inner continuities are obscured, however, by the striking stylistic changes which took place during Enescu’s seven decades as a composer. His first student works (from Vienna and his early Paris years) show the heavy influence of Schumann and Brahms. French influence comes to the fore with his Second Violin Sonata (1899), where the fluid piano textures and delicate combination of chromaticism and modal cadences are strongly reminiscent of Fauré. This sonata, written at the age of 17, was later described by Enescu as the first work in which he felt he was ‘becoming myself’. Yet, for the next 15 years or more, he continued to switch eclectically between a variety of stylistic idioms. His Octet for Strings (1900) combines rich late-Viennese chromaticism with ferocious contrapuntal energy; the First Symphony (1905) is an ambitious and sweepingly Romantic work with an explicit debt to Tristan und Isolde in the slow movement; but interspersed with these compositions were a number of neo-classical or neo-Baroque works, including the First Orchestral Suite (1903), the Second Piano Suite (1903) and the limpid Sept chansons de Clément Marot (1908), in which the piano part imitates, at times, the sonorities of lute music. The culmination of his series of neo-classical works was the Second Orchestral Suite (1915), whose bustling mock-Baroque figurations foreshadow Prokofiev’s Classical Symphony (1917) and Stravinsky’s Pulcinella (1919). Yet, almost contemporaneously, Enescu’s dense and intricate Second Symphony (1914) explored the harmonic world of Richard Strauss’s Salome and Elektra.
Traditional accounts of Enescu’s musical development place great emphasis on the elements of Romanian folk music which appear in his works at an early stage – above all, in the Poème roumain (1897) and the two Romanian Rhapsodies (1901). (These last works were to become an albatross round Enescu’s neck: later in his life he bitterly resented the way they had dominated and narrowed his reputation as a composer.) But he quickly tired of the limited possibilities offered by the task of ‘setting’ Romanian songs and dances; as he remarked in 1924, the only thing a composer could do with an existing piece of folk music was ‘to rhapsodize it, with repetitions and juxtapositions’.
The real significance of his Romanian folk-heritage would emerge later in the growth of Enescu’s musical language, as he searched for new ways of developing, and combining, pure melodic lines. Particularly influential here was the doina, a type of meditative song, frequently melancholic, with an extended and flexible line in which melody and ornamentation merge into one. (This was the type of song for which Bartók had coined the phrase parlando rubato.) The melodic line was, for Enescu, the vital principle of music: as he wrote in his autobiography, ‘I’m not a person for pretty successions of chords … a piece deserves to be called a musical composition only if it has a line, a melody, or, even better, melodies superimposed on one another’. His urge to superimpose melodies led, in several early works, to some exorbitant uses of cyclical form: in the last movement of the Octet for Strings, for example, all the melodic elements of the work return, to be piled one on top of another. In his mature works, however, Enescu made increasing use of the less mechanically contrapuntal, more organic technique of heterophony – a form of loose melodic superimposition which was also rooted in Romanian folk music.
Some elements of Enescu’s mature style began to emerge at the end of World War I, with the completion of the Third Symphony (1918) and the First String Quartet (1920). Both works display an organicist style of development, in which germinal themes, intervals and note-patterns are constantly adapted and recombined. As Enescu worked on his opera Oedipe during the 1920s, this method lent itself naturally to the elaboration of leitmotifs: one modern study (by Octavian Cosma) has identified 21 such motifs in the work, although their functioning is so germinal and cellular that it is possible for listeners to experience the whole work without being aware of the presence of leitmotifs at all. Another feature of the opera is the minutely detailed orchestration, which frequently makes use of solo instruments within the orchestral texture. This concentration on individual voices may help to explain why the output of his final decades is dominated by chamber music. Only two major orchestral works were completed after Oedipe: the Third Orchestral Suite (1938) and the symphonic poem Vox Maris (c1954). (Three works left in unfinished draft have, however, been completed recently by Romanian composers: the Caprice roumain for violin and orchestra (1928), completed by Cornel ??ranu, and the Fourth (1934) and Fifth (1941) symphonies, completed by Pascal Bentoiu.)
The great series of chamber works which crowns Enescu’s output begins with the Third Violin Sonata (1926), and includes the Piano Quintet (1940), Second Piano Quartet (1944), Second String Quartet (1951) and Chamber Symphony (1954). Enescu stays within the bounds of late-Romantic tonality and classical forms but transmutes both into a very personal idiom; ceaseless motivic development is woven into elaborate adaptations of sonata form, variation-sequences and cyclical recombinations. Romanian folk elements are also present, sometimes in the form of percussive Bartókian dances, but the most characteristic use of folk music here involves the meditative doina. In several works (the Third Orchestral Suite, the Impressions d’enfance for violin and piano (1940) and the Third Violin Sonata, as commented on by Enescu) the use of such folk elements was linked to the theme of childhood reminiscence: what Enescu aimed at was not the alienating effect of quasi-primitivism which modernists sought in folk music (Stravinsky, for example), but, on the contrary, a childlike sense of immediacy and intimacy. That, indeed, is the special character of many of his finest works.
ed. B. Gavoty : Les souvenirs de Georges Enesco (Paris, 1955, 2/1982 as Contrepoint dans le miroir)
ed. V. Cosma : Scrisori [Letters], 2 vols (Bucharest, 1974–81)
[M. Costin?]: Georges Enesco: notes biographiques (Bucharest, 1928)
N. Hodoroab? : George Enescu: contribu?iuni la cunoa?terea vie?ii sale (Ia?i, 1928)
B. Gavoty : Yehudi Menuhin – Georges Enesco (Geneva, 1955)
L. Voiculescu : George Enescu ?i opera sa Oedip (Bucharest, 1956)
A. Alessandrescu : Scrieri despre George Enescu (Bucharest, 1958)
G. B?lan : George Enescu: mesajul – estetica (Bucharest, 1962)
F. Foni, M. Missir and M. Voicana (with E. Zottoviceanu): George Enescu (Bucharest, 1964) [with full bibliography, pp.379–434]
O.L. Cosma : Oedipul enescian (Bucharest, 1967)
C. ??ranu : George Enescu în con?tiin?a prezentului (Bucharest, 1969)
M. R?dulescu : Violinistica enescian? (Bucharest, 1971)
M. Voicana, ed.: George Enescu: monografie, 2 vols (Bucharest, 1971) [with full bibliography, vol.ii, pp.1157–1220]
R. Dr?ghici : George Enescu, biografie documentar?: copil?rie ?i anii de studii (1881–1900) (Bac?u, 1973)
M. Voicana, ed.: Enesciana, vols i (Bucharest, 1976), ii–iii (Bucharest, 1981), iv (Bucharest, 1985)
Y. Menuhin : Unfinished Journey (London, 1977)
M. Grindea, ed.: Adam, nos.434–6 (London, 1981) [special issue]
G. Potra, ed.: Romanian Review, 35/viii (1981) [special issue]
S. R?dulescu, ed.: Centenarul George Enescu (Bucharest, 1981)
M. Ro?u, ed.: Simpozion George Enescu (Bucharest, 1981)
Z. Vancea, ed.: George Enescu (Bucharest, 1981)
P. Bentoiu : Capodopere enesciene (Bucharest, 1984)
B. Kotlyarov : George Enesco: his Life and Times (Neptune City, NJ, 1984)
C. Firca : Catalogul tematic al crea?iei lui George Enescu (Bucharest, 1985–)
L. Manolache, ed.: Interviuri din presa româneasc?, 2 vols (Bucharest, 1988–91)
N. Malcolm : George Enescu: his Life and Music (London, 1990) [with list of recordings by Enescu, pp.278–90]
D. Vitcu : George Enescu în spa?iul artistic american: Georges Enesco in the American Musical World (Ia?i, 1994)
D. Williams, ed.: Celebrating George Enescu: a Symposium (Washington DC, 1997)