Swami Bharati Krishna Tirtha (1884-1960), former Jagadguru
Sankaracharya of Puri culled a set of 16 Sutras (aphorisms) and 13 Sub -
Sutras (corollaries) from the Atharva Veda. He developed methods and
techniques for amplifying the principles contained in the aphorisms and their
corollaries, and called it Vedic Mathematics.
This book on Vedic Mathematics seeks to present an integrated approach to
learning Mathematics with keenness of observation and inquisitiveness, avoiding
the monotony of accepting theories and working from them mechanically. The
explanations offered make the processes clear to the learners. The logical proof of
the Sutras is detailed in algebra, which eliminates the misconception that the
Sutras are a jugglery.
The Magic of Vedic Maths.
What does mathematics have to do with Hinduism? Well,just as the basic principles of Hinduism lie in the Vedas, so do the roots of mathematics.
The Vedas, written around 1500-900 BC, are Vedas, written around 1500-900 BCE, are ancient Indian texts containing a record of human experience
a nd knowledge. Thousands of and dissertations on mathematics. It is now commonly believed and widely accepted that these treatises laid down
the foundations of algebra, algorithm, square roots, cube roots, various methods of calculation, and the concept of zero.
"Vedic Mathematics" is the name given to the ancient system of mathematics, or, to be precise, a unique technique of calculations based on simple
rules and principles, with which any mathematical problem be it arithmetic, algebra, geometry or trigonometry can be solved, hold your breath, orally!
Sutras: Natural Formulae
The system is based on 16 Vedic sutras or aphorisms, which are actually word formulae describing natural ways of solving a whole range of problems.
Some examples of sutras are "By one more than the one before", "All from 9 & the last from 10", and "Vertically & Crosswise". These 16 one-line
formulae originally written in Sanskrit, which can be easily memorized, enables one to solve long mathematical problems quickly.
If you want to find the square of 45, you can employ the Ekadhikena Purvena
sutra ("By one more than the one before"). The rule says since the first digit is 4
and the second one is 5, you will first have to multiply 4 (4 +1), that is 4 X 5,
which is equal to 20 and then multiply 5 with 5, which is 25. Viola! The answer is
2025. Now, you can employ this method to multiply all numbers ending with 5.
l If you want to subtract 4679 from 10000, you can easily apply the Nikhilam
Navatashcaramam Dashatah sutra ("All from 9 and the last from 10"). Each
figure in 4679 is subtracted from 9 and the last figure is subtracted from 10,
yielding 5321. Similarly, other sutras lay down such simple rules of calculation.
Here the number is 25. We have to find out the square of the number. For the
number 25, the last digit is 5 and the 'previous' digit is 2. Hence, 'one more than
the previous one', that is, 2+1=3. The Sutra, in this context, gives the procedure
'to multiply the previous digit 2 by one more than itself, that is, by 3'. It becomes
the L.H.S (left hand side) of the result, that is, 2 X 3 = 6. The R.H.S (right hand
side) of the result is 52, that is, 25.
Thus 252 = 2 X 3 / 25 = 625.
In the same way,
352= 3 X (3+1) /25 = 3 X 4/ 25 = 1225;
652= 6 X 7 / 25 = 4225;
1052= 10 X 11/25 = 11025;
1352= 13 X 14/25 = 18225;